Concept definitions
Id Concept Definition Scope Note Notation
100 administrative body Any governmental agency or organization charged with managing and implementing regulations, laws and government policies.
10002 accounting Method of recording all the transactions affecting the financial condition of a business or organization.
10003 animal life
10008 consumer product Economic good that directly satisfies human wants or desires.
1001 bridge A structure that spans and provides a passage over a road, railway, river, or some other obstacle.
10012 environmental administration institution A central government organization that has authority or oversight over government activity relating to the preservation and safeguarding of ecological or natural resources.
10017 health effect of noise Noise consequences on human health consist in loss of hearing and psychological effects.
10018 human body The entire physical structure of an human being.
10019 human science Group of sciences including sociology, anthropology, psychology, pedagogy, etc. as opposed to the humanistic group.
10024 information transfer The communication or conveyance of data or materials for the purpose of enhancing knowledge from one person, place or position to another.
10026 juridical act Acts relating to the administration of justice.
10031 meteorological research Study of meteorological elements such as wind speed and direction, air temperature and humidity, atmospheric pressure, precipitation, evaporation, solar radiation, visibility and cloud cover in order to collect data for weather forecast or for specific research purposes.
10032 natural areas protection Active management of nature areas in order to ensure that wildlife is protected and the quality of its environment is maintained.
10034 natural risks prevention Precautionary measures, actions or installations implemented to avert the probability of harm to humans, property or natural resources posed by conditions or events in the environment neither initiated nor formed by human activity.
10039 physical chemistry A science dealing with the effects of physical phenomena on chemical properties.
10040 physical measurement of pollution The quantitative determination of the presence, extent or type of pollutant substances in the environment using mechanical means, including optical, electrical, acoustical and thermodynamic techniques.
10043 plant life
10044 plant production
10048 pollution type
10049 pollution prevention Eliminating the production of hazardous wastes and greenhouse gases at their source, within the production process. This can often be achieved through a variety of relatively simple strategies, including minor changes in manufacturing processes, substitution of non-polluting products for polluting products, and simplification of packaging. Companies practicing waste reduction have saved hundreds of millions of dollars, and used it to catalyze employee involvement and eliminate the need for expensive end-of-the-pipe filtering.
10053 risk management The process of evaluating and selecting alternative regulatory and non-regulatory responses to prepare for the probability of an accidental occurrence and its expected magnitude of damage, including the consideration of legal, economic and behavioral factors.
10054 safety system A unified, coordinated assemblage or plan of procedures and devices intended to lower the occurrence or risk of injury, loss and danger to persons, property or the environment.
10055 seismic engineering The study of the behavior of foundations and structures relative to seismic ground motion, and the attempt to mitigate the effect of earthquakes on structures.
10057 social science The study of society and of the relationship of individual members within society, including economics, history, political science, psychology, anthropology, and sociology.
10058 surface water management The administration or handling of water naturally open to the atmosphere (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, ponds, streams, seas, etc.).
10064 wildlife protection Precautionary actions, procedures or installations undertaken to prevent or reduce harm to animals, plants and other organisms living in their natural state.
10066 historic centre That part of a town or city in which the principal public and historic buildings are located.
10067 promotion of trade and industry Any activity that encourages or supports the buying, selling or exchanging of goods or services with other countries, which could include marketing, diplomatic pressure or the provision of export incentives such as credits and guarantees, government subsidies, training and consultation or advice.
10068 masonry A construction of stone or similar materials such as concrete or brick.
1007 bromine A pungent dark red volatile liquid element of the halogen series that occurs in brine and is used in the production of chemicals.
10071 sand flat A sandy tidal flat barren of vegetation. A tidal flat is an extensive, nearly horizontal, marshy or barren tract of land that is alternately covered and uncovered by the tide, and consisting of unconsolidated sediment (mostly mud and sand). It may form the top surface of a deltaic deposit.
10073 animal species Species belonging to the animal kingdom.
10074 plant species Species belonging to the plant kingdom.
10076 occupation
10078 folk tradition The common beliefs, practices, customs and other cultural elements of an ethnic or social group that are rooted in the past, but are persisting into the present due to means such as arts and crafts, songs and music, dance, foods, drama, storytelling and certain forms of oral communication.
10084 law branch A subdivision of the body of principles and regulations established by a government or other authority, generally defined by its scope or application.
10085 judicial system Entire network of courts in a particular jurisdiction.
10087 chemical measurement of pollution The quantitative determination of the presence, extent or type of pollutant substances in the environment by studying the actions or reactions of known chemicals to those pollutants.
10088 measuring instrument
10089 pollutant evolution The process of cumulative reactive change following the introduction of a pollutant into the environment.
10092 urban noise Noise emitted from various sources in an urban environment.
10097 cleanliness (hygiene) The state of being clean and keeping healthy conditions. clothes, kitchenware, etc. <F>
10099 industrial environment (in general) Environment where the manifold activities connected with the production of goods and services take place.
10102 natural risk Probability of harm to human health, property or the environment posed by any aspect of the physical world other than human activity.
10103 natural risk analysis Analysis of the probability of occurrence, within a specific period of time in a given area, of a potentially damaging phenomenon of nature.
10104 major risk The high probability that a given hazard or situation will yield a significant amount of lives lost, persons injured, damage to property , disruption of economic activity or harm to the environment; or any product of the probability of occurrence and the expected magnitude of damage beyond a maximum acceptable level.
10106 rescue system Any series of procedures and devices used by trained personnel to provide immediate assistance to persons who are in danger or injured.
10107 crisis management The technique, practice or science of handling or controlling situations of acute difficulty, danger or instability; or the total of measures taken to provide a solution for political, economic, environmental or other similar dangers and conflicts.
10120 tax system A co-ordinated body of methods or plan of procedures for levying compulsory charges for the purpose of raising revenue.
10126 concept of environment The development at any level of a general notion of the surrounding ecosystem, its foundational relationship to human life and the need to preserve its integrity.
10128 forest ecology The science that deals with the relationship of forest trees to their environment, to one another, and to other plants and to animals in the forest.
10129 scientific ecology The study of the interrelationship among living organisms and between organisms and their environment, utilizing the methods or theories of science.
10130 urban ecology Concept derived from biology: the city is viewed as a total environment, as a life-supporting system for the large number of people concentrated there, and within this people organize themselves and adapt to a constantly changing environment. Regarded as the same as human ecology.
10131 ecozone A broad geographic area in which there are distinctive climate patterns, ocean conditions, types of landscapes and species of plants and animals. Homogeous unit for landscape analysis based on the biophysical characteristics of the territory covered by the survey
10133 environmental engineering Branch of engineering concerned with the environment and its proper management. The major environmental engineering disciplines regard water supply, wastewater, stormwater, solid waste, hazardous waste, noise radiology, industrial hygiene, oceanography and the like.
10135 palaeoecology The application of ecological concepts to fossil and sedimentary evidence to study the interactions of Earth surface, atmosphere, and biosphere in former times.
10136 biological heritage The inheritance and preservation of the earth's or a particular region's balanced, integrated functionality as a natural habitat, with special concern for the water resources necessary to maintain the ecosystem.
1014 brooding To incubate eggs or cover the young for warmth.
10140 altitude 1) In general, a term used to describe a topographic eminence. 2) A specific altitude or height above a given level. 3) In surveying, the term refers to the angle between the horizontal and a point at a higher level.
10142 cove 1) A deep recess hollow, or nook in a cliff or steep mountainside, or a small, straight valley extending into a mountain or down a mountainside. 2) A valley or portion of lowland that penetrates into a plateau or mountain front.
10143 canyon A long deep, relatively narrow steep-sided valley confined between lofty and precipitous walls in a plateau or mountainous area, often with a stream at the bottom; similar to, but largest than, a gorge. It is characteristic of an arid or semiarid area (such as western U.S.) where stream downcutting greatly exceeds weathering.
10144 headland (geography) A cape or promontory jutting seawards from a coastline, usually with a significant sea cliff.
10146 geographic circque A deep steep-walled half-bowl-like recess or hollow, variously described as horseshoe- or crescent-shaped or semi-circular in plan, situated high on the side of a mountain and commonly at the head of a glacial valley and produced by the erosive activity of a mountain glacier. It often contains a small round lake, and it may or may not be occupied by ice or snow.
10148 continent A protuberance of the earth's crustal shell, with an area of several million square miles and sufficient elevation so that much of it above sea level.
10149 barrier beach An elongated sand or shingle bank which lies parallel to the coastline and is not submerged by the tide. If it is high enough to permit dune growth it is termed a barrier island.
1015 brook A small stream or rivulet, commonly swiftly flowing in rugged terrain, of lesser length and volume than a creek; especially a stream that issues directly from the ground, as from a spring or seep, or that is produced by heavy rainfall or melting snow.
10152 creek A narrow inlet or bay, especially of the sea.
10154 fault A fracture or a zone of fractures along which there has been displacement of the sides relative to one another parallel to the fracture.
10155 cliff A steep coastal declivity which may or may not be precipitous, the slope angle being dependent partly on the jointing, bedding and hardness of the materials from which the cliff has been formed, and partly on the erosional processes at work. Where wave attack is dominant the cliff-foot will be rapidly eroded and cliff retreat will take place, especially in unconsolidated materials such as clays, sands, etc., frequently leaving behind an abrasion platform at the foot of the cliff.
10158 open sea The high seas lying outside the exclusive economic zones of states. All states have equal rights to navigate, to overfly, to lay submarine cables, to construct artificial islands, to fish, and to conduct scientific research within the high seas.
10160 coral reef lagoon A coastal stretch of shallow saltwater virtually cut off from the open sea by a coral reef.
10161 river bed The channel containing or formerly containing the water of a river.
10166 physical environment The material surroundings of a system, process or organism.
10170 alluvial plain A level or gently sloping tract or a slightly undulating land surface produced by extensive deposition of alluvium, usually adjacent to a river that periodically overflows its banks; it may be situated on a flood plain, a delta, or an alluvial fan.
10175 barrier reef An elongated accumulation of coral lying at low-tide level parallel to the coast but separated from it by a wide and deep lagoon or strait. The coral is thought to have formed initially on a flat surface: then as the sea-level rose in post-glacial times, thereby submerging the irregular wave-cut platform, the coral growth kept pace with the rising ocean level, so creating the great thickness witnessed today in such places as the Great Barrier Reef off the East coast of Queensland, Australia. This stretches for more than 1900 km and varies in width from about 30 km to 150 km.
10176 relief (land) The physical shape, configuration or general unevenness of a part of the Earth's surface, considered with reference to variation of height and slope or to irregularities of the land surface; the elevation or difference in elevation, considered collectively, of a land surface.
10189 biotope order An ordinance or decree regarding an area of ecological habitat that is characterized by a high degree of uniformity in its environmental conditions and in its distribution of plants and animals.
10190 sensitive natural area Terrestrial or aquatic area or other fragile natural setting with unique or highly-valued environmental features.
10191 environmental analysis
10193 abiotic environment The non-living components of the environment (rocks, minerals, soil, water and climate).
10194 aquatic environment Waters, including wetlands, that serve as habitat for interrelated and interacting communities and populations of plants and animals.
10197 sensitive environment Any parcel of land, large or small, under public or private control, that already has, or with remedial action could achieve, desirable environmental attributes. These attributes contribute to the retention and/or creation of wildlife habitat, soils stability, water retention or recharge, vegetative cover, and similar vital ecological functions. Environmentally sensitive areas range in size from small patches to extensive landscape features. They can include rare or common habitats, plants and animals.
10198 terrestrial environment The continental as distinct from the marine and atmospheric environments. It is the environment in which terrestrial organisms live.
10199 marine park A permanent reservation on the seabed for the conservation of species.
1020 brushwood Woody vegetation including shrubs and scrub trees of non-commercial height and form, often seen in the initial stages of succession following a disturbance. Brush often grows in very dense thickets that are impenetrable to wild animals and serve to suppress the growth of more desirable crop trees. However, brush can also serve an important function as desirable habitat for a range or bird, animal, and invertebrate species, and often provides a good source of browse and cover for larger wildlife. It adds structural diversity within the forest and is important in riparian zones. It is also termed scrub.
10200 regional natural park A park operated and managed by a region.
10201 reserve Any area of land or water that has been set aside for a special purpose, often to prevent or reduce harm to its wildlife and ecosystems.
10202 state biological reserve An area of land and/or of water designated as having protected status for purposes of preserving certain biological features. Reserves are managed primarily to safeguard these features and provide opportunities for research into the problems underlying the management of natural sites and of vegetation and animal populations. Regulations are normally imposed controlling public access and disturbance.
10203 forest biological reserve Forest areas which are protected and guarded from deforestation because of the fragility of its ecosystems, and because they provide habitats for hundreds of species of plants and animals.
10208 voluntary natural reserve Area of national interest which is protected under the responsibility of its owner in order to safeguard wildlife, archeological and geological sites.
10210 central park area The core area of a park or of a reserve where there can be no interference with the natural ecosystem.
10212 protected marine zone Sea area where marine wildlife is protected.
10214 peripheral park area A zone of the park where scientific research is allowed. Beyond this there is a buffer zone which protects the whole reserve from agricultural, industrial and urban development.
10215 alignment The selection and detailed layout of public transport routes in the light of construction, operation, service, technology, and economic criteria.
10217 bocage The wooded countryside characteristic of northern France, with small irregular-shaped fields and many hedges and copses. In the French language the word bocage refers both to the hedge itself and to a landscape consisting of hedges. Bocage landscapes usually have a slightly rolling landform, and are found mainly in maritime climates. Being a small-scale, enclosed landscape, the bocage offers much variations in biotopes, with habitats for birds, small mammals, amphibians, reptiles and butterflies.
10225 French formal garden
10228 English garden A plot of ground consisting of an orderly and balanced arrangement of masses of flowers, shrubs and trees, following British traditions or style.
10229 terraced garden
1023 bryophyte Any plant of the division Bryophyta, having stems and leaves but lacking true vascular tissue and roots and reproducing by spores: includes the mosses and liverworts.
10233 terraced landscape Landscape resulting from the method of cultivating land by cutting terraces or benches into slopes to create areas of flat land. The practice is common in mountainous areas where land is scarce and rainfall uncertain.
10236 mountain protection
10237 site protection Precautionary actions, procedures or installations undertaken to prevent or reduce harm to the environmental integrity of a physical area or location.
10238 coast protection A form of environmental management designed to allay the progressive degradation of the land by coastal erosion processes. Sea defence works can be undertaken to protect the land from erosion and encroachment by the sea and against flooding. These involve engineering solutions such as groynes, sea walls, bulkheads, revetments and breakwaters.
1024 bubble policy (emissions trading) EPA policy that allows a plant complex with several facilities to decrease pollution from some facilities while increasing it from others, so long as total results are equal to or better than previous limits. Facilities where this is done are treated as if they exist in a bubble in which total emissions are averaged out.
10240 site rehabilitation The restoration of the ecological quality of an area or location.
10243 classified site Site which is declared protected because of its natural, landscape, artistic or archeological features in order to guarantee its conservation, maintenance and restoration.
10244 registered site Area which is officially registered because of its unique features; a description is provided concerning its location, size, latitude, longitude, orientation, elevation, boundaries, wildlife, hydrological and soil characteristics, etc.
1025 budget A balance sheet or statement of estimated receipts and expenditures. A plan for the coordination of resource and expenditures. The amount of money that is available for, required for, or assigned to a particular purpose.
10251 urban ecology charter A graphic representation of a city area or other densely populated region, portraying the location of groups or select types of people in their environment through various geographic techniques.
10255 environmental citizenship The state, character or behavior of a person viewed as a member of the ecosystem with attendant rights and responsibilities, especially the responsibility to maintain ecological integrity and the right to exist in a healthy environment.
10256 integrated management Unified, combined and coordinated management of environmental problems which correlates relevant organisations, groups, individuals and disciplines by bringing the parts together for a complete approach.
10260 sponsorship A person, firm, organization, etc. that provides or pledges money for an undertaking or event.
10263 municipal environment plan A formulated or systematic method for the management of a city or town's natural or ecological resources.
10274 public awareness campaign An organized, systematic effort through various communications media to alert the general population of a given area to anything of significant interest or concern.
1028 bug Any of the suborder Heteroctera, having piercing and sucking mouthparts, specialized as a beak.
1029 building Something built with a roof and walls, such as a house or factory.
103 administrative competence The skill, knowledge, qualification, capacity or authority to manage or direct the affairs of a public or private office, business or organization.
10305 migratory fish Fishes that migrate in a body, often between breeding places and winter feeding grounds.
1031 building area Land and other places on, under, in or through which the temporary and permanent works are to be executed and any other lands or places needed for the purposes of construction.
1033 building component A building element which uses industrial products that are manufactured as independent until capable of being joined with other elements.
10381 felid Predatory mammal, including cats, lions, leopards, tigers, jaguars, and cheetahs, typically having a round head and retractile claws.
1039 building industry The art and technique of building houses.
1041 building land Area of land suitable for building on.
1042 building material Any material used in construction, such as steel, concrete, brick, masonry, glass, wood, etc.
10421 marine mammal Mammals which have adapted to live in the sea, such as whales, dolphins, porpoises, etc.
1044 building materials industry
10444 ovine Horned ruminant mammals raised in many breeds for wool, edible flesh, or skin.
1046 building planning The activity of designing, organizing or preparing for future construction or reconstruction of edifices and facilities.
1049 building regulation
10495 shelter Cover or protection, as from weather or danger; place of refuge.
10496 nesting area A place where birds gather to lay eggs.
105 administrative fiat An authoritative decree, sanction or order issued from an office with executive or managerial authority, without necessarily having the force of law or its equivalent.
10510 animal corridor Line corridors (roads, paths, and hedgerows) which lack interior habitat but may serve as movement groups for organisms. Corridors may also provide an efficient migratory pathway for animals. The presence or absence of breaks in a corridor may be a very important factor in determining the effectiveness of its conduit and barrier functions.
10511 animal damage Harm caused to the environment by animals as, for instance, in the case of overgrazing, trampling, etc. Overgrazing damage is reduced by properly located watering facilities to decrease daily travel by livestock. Rotation of grazing areas allows time for recovery of grass. Some land can be easily restored if grazing is allowed only during one season. Animals may cause damage to crops when agriculture land borders on virgin territory or game reserves. In addition wild animals may bring disease in valuable domestic herds. Cattle overstocking has caused serious degradation of habitat, and cattle raising is thus, to some extent, counterproductive.
10512 animal displacement The habit of many animal species of moving inside their habitats or of travelling, during migrations, to different biotopes, often considerable distances apart; in aquatic environments displacements can occur horizontally or vertically while in terrestrial environments animal populations that breed in the alpine or subalpine zones in summer, move to lower levels in winter; animal displacements usually follow circadian rhythms and are related to the necessity of finding breeding, resting and feeding areas.
1052 building site A piece of land on which a house or other building is being built.
10521 spawning ground Area of water where fish come each year to produce their eggs.
10523 animal habitat The locality in which an animal naturally grows or lives. It can be either the geographical area over which it extends, or the particular station in which an animal is found.
10535 nesting The building of nests for egg laying and rearing of offspring.
10539 animal population A group of animals inhabiting a given area.
1054 building site preparation
10548 animal reproduction Any of various processes, either sexual or asexual, by which an animal produces one or more individuals similar to itself.
10554 survival The act or fact of surviving or condition of having survived.
10562 endemic species Species native to, and restricted to, a particular geographical region.
10568 broad-leaved tree Deciduous tree which has wide leaves, as opposed to the needles on conifers.
10574 sea grass bed Seaweeds communities formed by green, brown and red macroscopic algae and by sea phanerogams such as Posidonia oceanica and Zostera noltii, etc.
10575 macrophyte A large macroscopic plant, used especially of aquatic forms such as kelp (variety of large brown seaweed which is a source of iodine and potash).
1058 building technology
1059 building waste Masonry and rubble wastes arising from the demolition or reconstruction of buildings or other civil engineering structures.
10593 riverside vegetation Plants growing in areas adjacent to rivers and streams.
10605 chestnut Any north temperate fagaceous tree of the genus Castanea, such as Castanea sativa, which produce flowers in long catkins and nuts in a prickly bur.
1061 built drainage system Collection of open and/or closed drains, together with structures and pumps used to collect and dispose of excess surface or subsurface water.
10612 graminaceous plant A very large family of plants including cereals such as wheat, maize, etc.
10617 posidonia Plant with elongated, planar, green leaves which measure up to 1,5 m. The flowers come out in the autumn but not every year. The fruits are dark balls, which one often finds washed up on beaches after storms. The same happens with the leaves which wilt and separate from the plant at the end of summer. It grows on sandy substrates, and has a rhizome from which several plants grow. The compact form of its growths retains the sediments pulled by the currents along the sea bed. Neptunegrass forms extensive prairies, always on the continental shelf. The plant's presence, apart from constituting an excellent refuge and food reserve for many species, gives an indication of the maturity and good condition of the whole marine ecosystem.
10626 vegetation level A subdivision of vegetation characteristic of a certain altitude above sea level at a given latitude.
1063 built environment That part of the physical surroundings which are people-made or people-organized, such as buildings and other major structures, roads, bridges and the like, down to lesser objects such as traffic lights, telephone and pillar boxes.
10633 plant population The number of plants in an area.
1064 built structure Any structure made of stone, bricks, wood, concrete, or steel, built with a roof and walls, such as a house or factory.
10640 arboretum Collection of trees from different parts of the world, grown for scientific study.
10644 chorology The study of the causal relations between geographical phenomena occurring within a particular region.
10646 variety collection Assemblage of cultivated plants that are distinguished by any characteristics (morphology, physiology, etc.) significant for purposes of horticulture, agriculture or forestry.
1065 built-up area Area which is full of houses, shops, offices and other buildings, with very little open space.
10651 animal conservatory Areas for the conservation of rare or endangered animal species.
10652 botanical conservatory Gardens for the conservation of rare species of plants.
10660 introduction of animal species Animals which have been translocated by human agency into lands or waters where they have not lived previously, at least during historic times. Such translocation of species always involves an element of risk if not of serious danger. Newly arrived species, depending on their interspecific relationships and characteristics, may act as or carry parasites or diseases, prey upon native organisms, display toxic reactions, or be highly competitive with or otherwise adversely affect native species and communities.
10661 introduction of plant species Plants which have been translocated by human agency into lands or waters where they have not lived previously, at least during historic times. Such translocation of species always involves an element of risk if not of serious danger. Newly arrived species may be highly competitive with or otherwise adversely affect native species and communities. Some may become a nuisance through sheer overabundance. They may become liable to rapid genetic changes in their new environment. Many harmful introductions have been made by persons unqualified to anticipate the often complex ecological interaction which may ensue. On the other hand many plants introduced into modified or degraded environments may be more useful than native species in controlling erosion or in performing other positive functions.
10666 animal heritage The sum of the earth's or a particular region's non-human, non-vegetable, multicellular organisms viewed as the inheritance of the present generation, especially animal species deemed worthy of preservation and protection from extinction.
10667 plant heritage The sum of the earth's or a particular region's herb, vegetable, shrub and tree life viewed as the inheritance of the present generation, especially plant species deemed worthy of preservation and protection from extinction.
1067 bulb cultivation The cultivation of flower bulb is divided into two sectors: for forcing (flower bulbs used by professional growers for the production of cut flowers and potted plants) and for dry sales (flower bulbs for garden planting, flower pots, landscaping and parks).
10670 protection of animals
10671 animal species reintroduction Attempts made to prevent the extinction of threatened species and populations by reintroducing them in their natural habitat. The reintroduction of species in a region requires a preliminary study to establish the reasons of their disappearance and the modifications that might have occurred in the biotopes.
10672 plant species reintroduction Reintroducing wild plant species to their natural habitat. The reintroduction of species in a region requires a preliminary study to establish the reasons of their disappearance and the modifications that might have occurred in the biotopes.
10683 local afforestation The planting of trees in an area, or the management of an area to allow trees to regenerate or colonize naturally, in order to produce a forest.
10685 windfall 1) Falling of old trees in a forest caused by a storm or strong wind. It plays an important role in the spontaneous regeneration of forest ecosystems. 2) A plot of land covered with trees blown down by the wind.
10691 pruning The cutting off or removal of dead or living parts or branches of a plant to improve shape or growth.
10692 forest exploitation Forests have been exploited over the centuries as a source of wood and for obtaining land for agricultural use. The mismanagement of forest lands and forest resources has led to a situation where the forest is now in rapid retreat. The main aspects of the situation are: serious shortages in the supply of industrial wood; the catastrophic erosion and floods accompanying the stripping of forests from mountainous land; the acute shortages of fuel wood in much of the developing world; the spread of desert conditions at an alarming rate in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world; and the many environmental effects of the destruction of tropical rainforests.
10693 mountain forest An extensive area of woodland that is found at natural elevations usually higher than 2000 feet.
10694 state forest Forest owned and managed by the State.
10695 Mediterranean forest Type of forest found in the Mediterranean area comprising mainly xerophilous evergreen trees.
10696 private forest
10698 timber forest Forest whose trees are all in the adult stage and have reached the reproductive period.
10699 maquis A low evergreen shrub formation, usually found on siliceous soils in the Mediterranean lands where winter rainfall and summer drought are the characteristic climate features. It consists of a profusion of aromatic species, such as lavender, myrtle, oleander and rosemary and often includes abundant spiny shrubs. It has been suggested that the maquis is a secondary vegetation, occupying the lands cleared of their natural evergreen oak forests by human activity.
107 administrative jurisdiction The extent, power or territory in which an office with executive or managerial authority administers justice or declares judgments.
10703 dry lawn
10704 nursery garden
10706 forest protection Branch of forestry concerned with the prevention and control of damage to forests arising from the action of people or livestock, of pests and abiotic agents.
10707 natural regeneration The replacement by an organism of tissues or organs which have been lost or severely injured.
10708 resinous plant Plants yielding or producing resin.
10711 coppice with standards A traditional system of woodland management whereby timber trees are grown above a coppiced woodland. It is used in particular as a method of exploiting oakwoods, in which all the trees except a rather open network of tall, well-formed oaks - the standards at about fifty per hectare - are felled, leaving plenty of space for hazels and other underwood to grow and be coppiced at intervals of ten to fifteen years.
10721 game (play) An amusement or pastime; diversion.
10726 big game Large wild animals that weigh typically more than 30 lb when fully grown, hunted for food, sport or profit.
10744 shellfish farming Raising of shellfish in inland waters, estuaries or coastal waters, for commercial purposes. All commercial shellfish beds producing bivalve molluscs must be monitored for microbial contamination. Samples of water and shellfish flesh must be tested for the presence of algal toxins. Periodic monitoring of fish and shellfish must be carried out to check for the presence of contaminants.
1075 bureaucratisation The multiplication of or concentration of power in administrators and administrative offices in an organization, usually resulting in an extension into and regimentation of certain areas of social life.
10753 oyster farming There are two types of oyster farming: suspension culture, in which oysters are grown off bottom, in floating trays, is a labor-intensive form of cultivation that requires continuous tending and cleaning of both gear and shellfish, and bottom culture, which is similar to conventional crop farming on land; it involves selecting areas of the sea floor that provide a natural food supply, necessary currents, minimum exposure to predators, and proper temperature and then "seeding" the bottom with shellfish stock that are left to grow to market size. Then they are harvested with a bottom drag from a boat. Both suspension culture and bottom culture depend on natural food supplies for growing the shellfish being raised.
10758 commercial fishery Such fisheries belong to one of two groups: one catching demersal (bottom-living) fish, e.g. cod, haddock, plaice, sole; the other catching pelagic (surface-living) fish, e.g. anchovy, tuna, herring.
10760 national fishing reserve Limited portion of a water body belonging to the State where angling is allowed.
10767 socioeducational activity Instruction or events designed to offer learning or cultural experiences to populations without access to traditional educational institutions due to social or economic barriers.
10773 competitive examination A test given to a candidate for a certificate or a position and concerned typically with problems to be solved, skills to be demonstrated, or tasks to be performed.
10778 continuing education Various forms, methods, and processes of formal and informal education for the continued learning of all ages and categories of the general public. Oriented toward the continued learning/developmental processes of the individual throughout life.
10780 initial training Any education, instruction or discipline occurring at the beginning of an activity, task, occupation or life span.
10785 pedagogy The principles, practice, or profession of teaching.
108 administrative law Body of law created by administrative agencies in the form of rules, regulations, orders and decisions to carry out regulatory powers and duties of such agencies.
10818 environmental occupation Gainful employment or job-related activity pertaining to ecological concerns, including the preservation of natural resources and the integrity of the ecosystem.
1082 bus A large, long-bodied motor vehicle equipped with seating for passengers, usually operating as part of a scheduled service.
10833 public function Activity carried out for the benefit of the community.
10837 organisation of work The coordination or structuring of work practices and production processes in order to influence the way jobs are designed and performed in the workplace.
1084 business The activity, position or site associated with commerce or the earning of a livelihood.
10847 leisure centre A building containing a swimming pool and a large room or other places where you can play sports.
10851 community facility Buildings, equipment and services provided for a community.
10860 cycle path Part of the road or a special path for the use of people riding bicycles.
10861 ski run A trail, slope, or course for skiing.
10884 touristic route An established or selected course for travel consisting, typically, of secondary roads with significant scenic, cultural, historic, geological or natural features and including vistas, rest areas, and interpretive sites matching the scenic characteristics of the course.
10890 ecomuseum A private, non-profit facility where plants and animals can be viewed in a natural outdoor setting.
10891 folklore The traditional and common beliefs, practices and customs of a people, which are passed on as a shared way of life, often through oral traditions such as folktales, legends, anecdotes, proverbs, jokes and other forms of communication.
10892 public attendance
10893 tourist attendance
10895 country lodge A small house or a hut located in the countryside.
10898 lodging Provision of accommodation for rest or for residence in a room or rooms or in a dwelling place.
10904 public The community or people in general or a part or section of the community grouped because of a common interest or activity.
10905 path A route or track between one place to another.
10906 seaside footpath A route or track running along the coast.
10907 educational path A guided trail, designed to explain to children a piece of countryside, the type of soil, flora, fauna, etc. Such trails may be self-guiding, using either explanatory notices set up at intervals or numbered boards referring to a printed leaflet: in other cases parties may be led by a demonstrator or warden.
10909 seaside resort A place near the sea where people spend their holidays and enjoy themselves.
1091 butterfly Any diurnal insect of the order Lepidoptera that has a slender body with clubbed antennae and typically rests with the wings (which are often brightly coloured) closed over the back.
10910 mountain resort A place in the mountains where people spend their holidays and enjoy themselves.
10911 winter sports resort Resort where sports held in the open air on snow or ice, especially skiing are practiced.
10914 touristic unit
10915 all-terrain vehicle A land carriage so constructed that it can be used on any kind of road or rough terrain and can be operated for many purposes, such as carrying goods, transporting the injured, conveying passengers, etc.
10918 population density The number of people relative to the space occupied by them.
10919 young
1092 button-cell battery A tiny, circular battery made for a watch or for other microelectric applications.
10922 active population The number of people available and eligible for employment within a given enterprise, region or nation.
10925 time allocation The act of assigning various hours of one's day, week or year to particular activities, especially those falling within the categories of work and leisure.
10927 durable goods Goods which have a reasonably long life and which are not generally consumed in use: e.g. refrigerator.
10929 non-durable goods A good bought by consumers that tends to last for less than a year. Common examples are food and clothing. The notable thing about nondurable goods is that consumers tend to continue buying them regardless of the ups and downs of the business cycle.
1093 by-catch Incidental taking of non-commercial species in drift nets, trawling operations and long line fishing; it is responsible for the death of large marine animals and one factor in the threatened extinction of some species.
10930 goods A term of variable content and meaning. It may include every species of personal chattels or property. Items of merchandise, supplies, raw materials, or finished goods. Land is excluded.
10931 goods and services The total of economic assets, including both physical or storable objects and intangible acts of human assistance.
10932 time budget Determining or planning for allotment of time in hours, days, weeks, etc.
10933 living environment External conditions or surroundings in which people live or work.
10935 product life cycle A product life cycle includes the following phases: acquisition of raw materials, production, packaging, distribution, use, recyling, and disposal.
10936 ecolabel A mark, seal or written identification attached or affixed to products that provides specific ecological information allowing consumers to make comparisons with other similar products, or instructions on how to safely use or properly recycle or dispose of both products and packaging.
10938 quality certification The formal assertion in writing that a commodity, service or other product has attained a recognized and relatively high grade or level of excellence.
10939 living standard A measurement of the development level in a country or community, gauged by factors such as personal income, education, life expectancy, food consumption, health care, technology and the use of natural resources.
1094 by-product A product from a manufacturing process that is not considered the principal material.
10940 supply and demand The relationship between the amount or quantity of a commodity that is available for purchase and the desire or ability of consumers to buy or purchase the commodity, which, in theory, determines the commodity's price in a free market.
10959 ecological inequality Any imbalance or disparity among inhabitants of the same living environment deemed inappropriate, unjust or detrimental to that environment's integrity.
10960 social inequality Unequal rewards or opportunities for different individuals within a group or groups within a society. If equality is judged in terms of legal equality, equality of opportunity, or equality of outcome, then inequality is a constant feature of the human condition.
10964 myth A traditional or legendary story, usually dealing with supernatural beings, ancestors, heroes or events, that is with or without determinable basis of fact or a natural explanation, but is used to explain some practice, rite or phenomenon of nature, or to justify the existence of a social institution.
10968 NIMBY aptitude Not In My BackYard: phrase used to describe people who encourage the development of agriculture land for building houses or factories, provided it is not near where they themselves are living. aptitude "not in my back yard"
10971 social psychology Study of the effects of social structure on cognition and behavior, of processes of face-to-face interaction, and of the negotiation of social order.
10972 social representation A system of values, ideas and practices established to orient individuals in their community and culture and to provide them with naming, classification and communication codes.
10976 feeling for nature A consciousness, sensibility or sympathetic perception of the physical world and its scenery in their uncultivated state.
10977 socioeconomics Economic and social structure of communities, tax rates, characteristic types of development.
1098 cable Strands of insulated electrical conductors laid together, usually around a central core, and wrapped in a heavy insulation.
10980 access to administrative documents The legal right of access to administrative documents or the opportunity to avail oneself of the same.
10981 administrative deed Any formal and legitimate step taken or decision made on matters of policy by a chief or other top-level officer within an organization.
10985 territorial government An administrative body or system in which political direction or control is exercised over a designated area or an administrative division of a city, county or larger geographical area.
10986 decision making support
10988 minister competence The skill, knowledge, qualification, capacity or authority associated with the chief of an administrative department or other high ranking official selected by the head of state.
10991 citizen A native or naturalized member of a state or nation who owes allegiance, bears responsibilities and obtains rights, including protection, from the government.
10992 local government An administrative body or system in which political direction and control is exercised over the community of a city, town or small district.
10993 territorial community An infrastructure, body of people or homogenous constituency that is physically situated in a localized exurban area.
10999 parliamentary debate Formal discussion or dispute on a particular matter among the members of the parliament.
11 abiotic factor Physical, chemical and other non-living environmental factors. They are essential for living plants and animals of an ecosystem, providing the essential elements and nutrients that are necessary for growth. The abiotic elements also include the climatic and pedologic components of the ecosystem.
1100 cadmium One of the toxic heavy metal which has caused deaths and permanent illnesses in a series of major pollution incidents around the world. Cadmium has no useful biological purpose. However, it has wide industrial applications. It has been used for decades in metal plating to prevent corrosion, in rechargeable batteries and as a pigment in certain plastics and paints. Special care is taken in the industrial smelting of ores and subsequent handling of cadmium, because occupational exposure is known to have caused heart, chest and kidney disorders. Environmental health problems have come from exposure to various sources of pollution. Cd
11007 motivation of administrative acts The underlying reason or cause, a psychological or social factor, that incites or stimulates managers, executives or supervisors to complete tasks that achieve organizational or company goals.
1101 cadmium contamination The release and presence in the air, water and soil of cadmium, a toxic, metallic element, from sources such as the burning of coal and tobacco and improper disposal of cadmium-containing waste.
11016 economic plan A design, scheme or project pertaining to the production, distribution and use of income, wealth and commodities.
11018 subsidiary principle The fundamental doctrine or tenet that policy making decisions should be made at the most decentralized level, in which a centralized governing body would not take action unless it it is more effective than action taken at a lower government level.
1103 caesium A soft silvery-white and highly reactive metal belonging to the alkali group of metals. It is a radiation hazard, because it can occur in two radioactive forms. Caesium-134 is produced in nuclear reactors, not directly by fission, but by the reaction. It emits beta- and gamma-radiation and has a half-life of 2.06 years. Caesium-137 is a fission product of uranium and occurs in the fallout from nuclear weapons. It emits beta- and gamma-rays and has a half-life of 30 years. Caesium-137 was the principal product released into the atmosphere, and hence the food chain, from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons and from the Windscale fire and Chernobyl nuclear accidents. After the Chernobyl accident, which spread a radiation cloud across Europe, the European Commission proposed new and more restrictive limits on levels of caesium in food and drinking water.
11030 financial aid The transfer of funds from developed to underdeveloped countries.
11031 international assistance Economic, military, technical or financial aid or support given to nations or countries in need, often from other governments or international or intergovernmental organizations.
11032 public aid Government aid in the form of monies or food stamps to the poor, disabled, aged or to dependent children.
11034 national accounting Organised method of recording all business transactions in the national economy.
11035 satellite account A separate financial record or statement that discloses financial activity in a particular area and supplements existing financial records.
11038 household expenditure Any spending done by a person living alone or by a group of people living together in shared accommodation and with common domestic expenses.
11039 public expenditure Spending by national or local government, government-owned firms or quasi-autonomous non-government organizations.
11043 intervention fund Money or financial resources set aside to interpose or interfere in any business affair in order to affect an outcome.
11044 financial fund Monetary resources set aside for some purpose.
11045 European Monetary Fund Fund organized by the European Monetary System in which members of the European Community deposit reserves to provide a pool of resources to stabilize exchange rates and to finance balance of payments in support of the pending full European Monetary Union.
11046 International Monetary Fund An international organization established in 1944, affiliated with the United Nations that acts as an international bank facilitating the exchange of national currencies and providing loans to member nations. It also evaluates the performance of the economies of the world's countries.
11047 economic incentive Rewards or penalties offered by government or management to induce an economic sector, company or group of workers to act in such a way as to produce results that plan objectives or policy goals.
11048 incentive tax
11050 gross domestic product The total output of goods and services produced by a national economy in a given period, usually a year, valued at market prices. It is gross, since no allowance is made, for the value of replacement capital goods.
11051 exceptional tax Compulsory charges levied by a government unit in special or unique instances for the purpose of raising revenue to pay for services or improvements for the general public benefit.
11055 process analysis
11057 audit The periodic or continuous verification of the accounts, assets and liabilities of a company or other organization, often to confirm compliance with legal and professional standards.
11061 natural heritage assessment Evaluation of the natural structures, resources and landscapes to ensure their careful management and preservation.
11063 water cost The value or the amount of money exchanged for the production and sustained supply of water.
11065 ecomarketing The buying, selling, advertising, shipping, and storing of goods in compliance with ecological principles.
11069 patrimonial management A type of leadership and management style attempting to gain the loyalty and support of subordinates by excessively providing for their needs and interests.
11070 pollution control investment Securities held for the production of income in the form of interest and dividends with the aim of controlling or reducing pollution or substances in the environment deemed harmful to human health and natural resources.
11071 environment market
11073 antipollution premium A prize or bonus given as an inducement or reward for efforts to reduce the presence of pollution or substances in the environment deemed harmful to human health or natural resources.
11082 water pricing Applying a monetary rate or value at which water can be bought or sold.
11087 theory of the environment A structured simulation or explanation based on observation, experimentation and reasoning that seeks to demonstrate, characterize or explain the actions and interactions of the total surrounding conditions of a given system.
11089 trade activity
11095 local development A stage of growth or advancement in any aspect of a community that is defined by or restricted to a particular and usually small district or area.
11097 market study The gathering and studying of data to determine the projection of demand for an item or service.
111 administrative procedure
11100 free trade Trade which is unimpeded by tariffs, import and export quotas and other measures which obstruct the free movement of goods and services between states.
11103 less developed country One of the world's poorest nations, typically small in area and population, with low per capita incomes, literacy levels and medical standards, subsistence agriculture and a lack of exploitable minerals and competitive industries.
11106 North-South relationship The connections, associations or involvement of developed nations, found predominantly in the Northern Hemisphere, with developing nations, found predominantly in the Southern Hemisphere.
1111 calcium A malleable silvery-white metallic element of the alkaline hearth group; the fifth most abundant element in the earth crust, occurring especially as forms of calcium carbonate. It is an essential constituent of bones and teeth and is used as a deoxidizer in steel.
11113 calculation The act, process or result of calculating.
11116 density The mass of unit volume of a substance.
11118 spatial distribution A distribution or set of geographic observations representing the values of behaviour of a particular phenomenon or characteristic across many locations on the surface of the Earth.
11119 economic data
1112 calcium content Amount of calcium contained in a solution.
11124 index A list of record surrogates arranged in order of some attribute expressible in machine-orderable form.
11125 census survey An official periodic count of a population including such information as sex, age, occupation, etc.
11127 statistical series An ordered sequence of data samples in numerical form used to predict or demonstrate trends through time and space.
11128 opinion survey The canvassing of a representative sample of a large group of people on some question in order to determine the general opinion of a group.
1113 calculation method
11130 rate The amount of change in some quantity during a time interval divided by the length of the time interval.
11133 seasonal variation In time series, that part of the movement which is assigned to the effect of the seasons on the year.
11134 scientific committee An organized group of persons elected or appointed to discuss scientific matters.
11135 scientific dispute
1114 calibration To mark the scale of a measuring instrument so that readings can be made in appropriate units.
11146 applied research Research directed toward using knowledge gained by basic research to make things or to create situations that will serve a practical or utilitarian purpose.
11148 scientific research Systematic investigation to establish facts or principles concerning a specific scientific subject.
1115 calibration of measuring equipment The determination or rectification of, according to an accepted standard, the graduation of any instrument giving quantitative measurements.
11152 agronomy The principles and procedures of soil management and of field crop and special-purpose plant improvement, management, and production.
11153 agrosystem Ecosystem dominated by the continuous agricultural intervention of man.
11157 agricultural disaster Violent, sudden and destructive change in the environment either affecting or caused by land cultivation or the raising of crops or livestock.
11158 agricultural undervaluation The underrating or diminishing in value of agricultural or farming goods and services.
11159 rural development Any course destined to promote economic growth, modernization, increase in agricultural production and the creation of a framework in which to fulfill primary needs, such as education, health and supply of water in the rural areas. The attainment of such objectives depends in general on the type of administrative systems proposed for the various programmes and on the national political situation as regards, for instance land tenure, agrarian reform, the disbursement of assistance and food policy.
11165 agricultural hydraulics Science and technology involved in the management of water resources, in the control of erosion and in the removal of unwanted water.
11170 farming technique The business, art, or skill of agriculture.
11177 forage crop Cultivation of crops for consumption by livestock.
11178 market gardening The business of growing fruit and vegetables on a commercial scale.
11184 seed (product) A fertilized ovule containing an embryo which forms a new plant upon germination.
11186 crop treatment Use of chemicals in order to avoid damage of crops by insects or weeds.
11187 phytosanitary treatment Removal of heavy metals from water by the employment of plants or treatment by which plant organisms act to degrade hazardous organic contaminants or transform hazardous inorganic contaminants to environmentally safe levels in soils, subsurface materials, water, sludges, and residues.
11192 aviculture The raising, keeping, and care of birds.
11198 breeding technique Term referring to the systems employed in animal rearing (extensive and intensive).
11199 transhumance The seasonal migration of livestock to suitable grazing grounds.
112 administrative sanction Generally, any formal official imposition of penalty or fine; destruction, taking, seizure, or withholding of property; assessment of damages, reimbursement, restitution, compensation, costs, charges or fees; requirement, revocation or suspension of license; and taking other compulsory or restrictive action by organization, agency or its representative.
11201 mineral conditioner Any naturally occurring inorganic substances with a definite chemical composition and usually of crystalline structure, such as rocks, which are used to stabilize soil, improving its resistance to erosion, texture and permeability.
11204 draining The removal of water from a marshy area by artificial means, e.g. the introduction of drains.
11206 slash and burn culture A traditional farming system that has been used by generations of farmers in tropical forests and the savannah of north and east Africa. It is known to be an ecologically sound form of cultivation, and because the soil is poor in tropical rain forests it is a sustainable method of farming. It is still practised today, primarily in the developing countries. Small areas of bush or forests are cleared and the smaller trees burned. This unlocks the nutrients in the vegetation and gives the soil fertilizer that is easily taken up by plants. A few years later the soil is degraded and the farmer moves on to do the same at another site. The original ground is left fallow for anything up to 20 years so that the forest can regenerate. With the growth in population and in the subsequent need for more farming land to produce food, the method is increasingly being used today to clear large areas of tropical forests for cattle ranching, and in most cases the ground is not left fallow for long enough and, with modern mechanized farming systems, not enough tree stumps or suitable habitats for plant life are left to start the regeneration process.
11207 chalk A soft, pure, earthy, fine-textured, usually white to light gray or buff limestone of marine origin, consisting almost wholly (90-99%) of calcite, formed mainly by shallow-water accumulation of calcareous tests of floating microorganisms (chiefly foraminifers) and of comminuted remains of calcareous algae (such as cocoliths and rhabdoliths), set in a structureless matrix of very finely crystalline calcite. The rock is porous, somewhat friable, and only slightly coherent. It may include the remains of bottom-dwelling forms (e.g. ammonites, echinoderms, and pelecypods), and nodules of chert and pyrite. The best known and most widespread chalks are of Cretaceous age, such as those exposed in cliffs on both sides of the English Channel.
11209 nitrogenous fertiliser Fertilizer materials, natural or synthesized, containing nitrogen available for fixation by vegetation, such as potassium nitrate or ammonium nitrate.
1121 camping Guarded area equipped with sanitary facilities where holiday-makers may pitch a tent and camp by paying a daily rate.
11211 phosphatic fertiliser Fertilizer compound or mixture containing available (soluble) phosphate; examples are phosphate rock (phosphorite), superphosphates or triple superphosphates, nitrophosphate, potassium phosphate, or N-P-K mixtures.
11212 potassium fertiliser A chemical fertilizer containing potassium. Potassium (K) is required by all plant and animal life. Plants require potassium for photosynthesis, osmotic regulation and the activation of enzyme systems.
11214 purification through the soil The act or process in which a section of the ground is freed from pollution or any type of contamination, often through natural processes.
11224 soil leaching The removal of water or any soluble constituents from the soil. Leaching often occurs with soil constituents such as nitrate fertilizers with the result that nitrates end up in potable waters.
11226 mineral matter Inorganic materials having a distinct chemical composition, characteristic crystalline structure, colour, and hardness.
11227 organic matter Plant and animal residue that decomposes and becomes a part of the soil.
1123 camping site A piece of land where people on holiday can stay in tents, usually with toilets and places for washing.
11231 drainage system A surface stream, or a body of impounded surface water, together with all other such streams and water bodies that are tributary to it and by which a region is drained. An artificial drainage system includes also surface and subsurface conduits.
11232 irrigation system A system of man-made channels for supplying water to land to allow plants to grow.
11233 soil salinity Measurement of the quantity of mineral salts found in a soil. Many semi-arid and arid areas are naturally salty. By definition they are areas of substantial water deficit where evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation. Thus, whereas in humid areas there is sufficient water to percolate through the soil and to leach soluble materials from the soil and the rocks into the rivers and hence into the sea, in deserts this is not the case. Salts therefore tend to accumulate.
11234 agronomic value The monetary or material worth at which buyers and sellers agree to do business for agricultural goods and services.
11237 mountain management
11243 rural management and planning The activity or process of overseeing and preparing for the future physical arrangement and condition of any agricultural or pastoral area, which may involve protecting and developing natural and human resources that affect an area's economic vitality.
11244 touristic activity management The administration, promotion, organization and planning for the business or industry of providing information, transportation, entertainment, accommodations and other services to travelers or visitors.
11246 forestry unit Any entity or group of individuals involved with the creation, management and conservation of an extensive area of woodland, often to produce products and benefits such as timber, clean water, biodiversity and recreation.
11248 equipment plan A formulated or systematic method for the supply of material necessities such as tools, gear, provisions or furnishings.
11259 approach The way or means of entry or access.
1126 canal An artificial open waterway used for transportation, waterpower, or irrigation.
11269 railway station A place along a route or line at which a train stops to pick up or let off passengers or goods, especially with ancillary buildings and services.
11270 bus station A place along a route or line at which a bus stops for fuel or to pick up or let off passengers or goods, especially with ancillary buildings and services.
11271 road construction material The aggregation of components used for building streets, highways and other routes, such as asphalt, concrete, brick, sand and gravel.
11272 engineering work
11276 railway network The whole system of railway distribution in a country.
11277 road network The system of roads through a country.
11289 navigation The science or art of conducting ships or aircraft from one place to another, esp. the method of determining position, course, and distance travelled over the surface of the earth by the principles of geometry and astronomy and by reference to devices (as radar beacons or instruments) designed as aids.
11294 merchant shipping Transportation of persons and goods by means of ships travelling along fixed navigation routes.
11296 combined transport Transport in which more than one carrier is used, e.g. road, rail and sea.
1130 cancer Any malignant cellular tumour including carcinoma and sarcoma. It encompasses a group of neoplastic diseases in which there is a transformation of normal body cells into malignant ones, probably involving some change in the genetic material of the cells, possibly as a result of faulty repair of damage to the cell caused by carcinogenic agents or ionizing radiation.
11307 urban community Body of people living in a town or city.
11308 urban development document A written or printed text furnishing proposals or procedures for the improvement of living conditions, especially housing, for the inhabitants of a city or densely populated area.
11309 periurban space Any expanse of land or region located on the outskirts of a city or town.
11312 single family dwelling An unattached dwelling unit inhabited by an adult person plus one or more related persons.
11321 land use plan The key element of a comprehensive plan; describes the recommended location and intensity of development for public and private land uses, such as residential, commercial, industrial, recreational and agricultural.
11322 urban planning and development The activity or process of preparing for the future arrangement and condition of an urban center, particularly the development of its physical lay-out, which would include the construction, reconstruction, conversion, alteration or enlargement of buildings and other structures, and the extension or use of undeveloped land.
11323 land use regime Relation existing between the landowner and the tenant farmer who cultivates the land.
1133 cancer risk The probability that exposure to some agent or substance will adversely transform cells to replicate and form a malignant tumor.
11332 new town Any of several recent urban developments that constitute small and essentially self-sufficient cities with a planned ordering of residential, industrial, and commercial development.
11333 pre-emption zone Areas that are subject to the pre-emption right which is a privilege accorded by the government to the actual settler upon a certain limited portion of the public domain, to purchase such tract at a fixed price to the exclusion of all other applicants.
11334 land-management intervention area Any expanse of land which requires a person or agency with authority to interpose or interfere in how it is used or administrated.
1134 canid Carnivorous mammal in the superfamily Canoidea, including dogs and their allies.
11344 rural architecture
11345 traditional architecture
11355 building destruction The tearing down of buildings by mechanical means.
11359 municipal engineering Branch of engineering dealing with the form and functions of urban areas.
11375 building restoration The accurate reestablishment of the form and details of a building, its artifacts, and the site on which it is located, usually as it appeared at a particular time.
11427 statutory declaration A declaration made in a prescribed form before a justice of the peace, notary public, or other person authorized to administer an oath.
11429 quality standard
11430 European standard A standard which has been approved pursuant to the statutes of the standards bodies with which the Community has concluded agreements.
11431 ISO standard Documented agreements containing technical specifications or other precise criteria to be used consistently as rules, guidelines, or definitions of characteristics, to ensure that materials, products, processes and services are fit for their purpose. standard of International Standard Organisation
11433 technical regulation A government or management prescribed rule that provides detailed or stringent requirements, either directly or by referring to or incorporating the content of a standard, technical specification or code of practice.
11466 codification The process of collecting and arranging systematically, usually by subject, the laws of a state or country, or the rules and regulations covering a particular area or subject of law or practice.
11468 doctrine (law) A rule, principle, theory, or tenet of the law, as the doctrine of merger, the doctrine of relation, etc.
11472 transport law Rules concerning the movement of goods or persons by sea, railway or road.
11476 rural law A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government pertaining to matters of importance to residents of sparsely populated regions, especially agricultural and other economic issues.
11477 animal rights Just claims, legal guarantees or moral principles accorded to sentient, non-human species, including freedom from abuse, consumption, experimentation, use as clothing or performing for human entertainment.
11478 rights of future generations The moral, legal or ethical claims of posterity on present people, based on the recognition that the young and unborn are vulnerable to contemporary decision-making, especially decisions having long-term effect on the societies and environment they inherit.
11479 citizen rights Rights recognized and protected by law, pertaining to the members of a state.
1148 car A four-wheeled motor vehicle used for land transport, usually propelled by a gasoline or diesel internal combustion engine.
11489 notice Factual information, advice or a written warning communicated to a person by an authorized source, often conveyed because of a legal or administrative rule requiring transmission of such information to all concerned parties.
11490 circular mail A memorandum, letter or notice in either paper or electronic format distributed widely throughout an organization or to a general list of interested parties.
11493 Community ruling
11494 order 1) A direction or command of a court. In this sense it is often used synonymously with judgment. 2) The document bearing the seal of the court recording its judgment in a case.
11497 administrative instructions Education in the theories and practices of managing an office, business or organization.
11498 technical instruction The education, instruction, or discipline pertaining to or connected with the mechanical or industrial arts and the applied sciences.
11499 law (corpus of rules) A body of rules of action or conduct prescribed by controlling authority, and having binding legal force. not in U.K.
11502 hunting licence Official permission granted to individuals or commercial enterprises allowing and regulating by time, location, species, size or amount the wild animals or game that can be killed and taken from lands within a particular jurisdiction.
11504 building permit Authorization required by local governmental bodies for the erection of an enclosed structure or for the major alteration or expansion of an existing edifice.
11506 fishing licence Official permission granted to individuals or commercial enterprises allowing and regulating by time, location, species, size or amount the fish that can be caught from rivers, lakes or ocean waters within a particular jurisdiction.
11508 law draft The form in which proposed statutes, resolutions or special acts are introduced into a legislative body, before they are enacted or passed.
11514 regulation The act of regulating; a rule or order prescribed for management or government; a regulating principle; a precept. Rule of order prescribed by superior or competent authority relating to action on those under its control.
11517 transposition of directive
11521 concession Any rebate, abatement, voluntary grant of or a yielding to a demand or claim, typically made by a government or controlling authority to an individual or organization.
11522 public discussion Consideration, commentary by argument or informal debate on some issue that is open and of concern to the general populace.
11523 declaration of public utility Administrative Act giving the right to take private property for public use.
11524 private domain Generally, land and water owned by individuals or corporations as opposed to the state; in French civil law, any government property capable of being owned by non-public entities, which cannot be seized and which is restricted to the stipulated ownership and use.
11525 public waterways domain Rivers, canals and lakes owned by the state as opposed to individuals or corporations.
11526 public maritime domain eas or ocean areas owned by the state as opposed to individuals or corporations.
11527 right of access
11530 public benefit inquiry An investigation, especially a formal one conducted into a matter of public utility by a body constituted for that purpose by a government, local authority, or other organization.
11531 public inquiry An investigation, especially a formal one conducted into a matter of public utility by a body constituted for that purpose by a government, local authority, or other organization.
11532 delegated management The process of assigning or transferring authority, decision making or a specific administrative function from one entity to another.
11535 state control The power or authority of a government to regulate or command industry, organizations, programs, initiatives and individuals.
11536 easement The rights of use over the property of another; a burden on a piece of land causing the owner to suffer access by another.
11540 crime Any act done in violation of those duties which an individual owes to the community, and for the breach of which the law has provided that the offender shall make satisfaction to the public.
11548 police power
11549 criminal law procedure The rules of law governing the procedure by which crimes are investigated, prosecuted, adjudicated, and punish.
11556 judgement (sentence) The official and authentic decision of a court of justice upon the respective rights and claims of the parties to an action or suit therein litigated and submitted to its determination. The final decision of the court resolving the dispute and determining the rights and obligations of the parties. The law's last word in a judicial controversy, it being the final determination by a court of the rights of the parties upon matters submitted to it in an action or proceeding.
11559 conflict A state of opposition or disagreement between ideas, interests, etc.
11563 litigation A judicial contest, a judicial controversy, a suit at law.
11568 administrative court (administration) An independent, specialized judicial tribunal in which judges or officials are authorized by a government agency to conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the government agency and the persons, businesses or other organizations that it regulates.
11571 Court of Justice of the European Communities Institution set up under Treaty of Rome to ensure that in interpretation and application of the Treaty the law is observed. It consists of judges from each member state, appointed for 6-year periods, assisted by three Advocates General. It sits in Luxembourg, expressing itself in judgements when called upon to do so in proceedings initiated by member states, institutions of the EC and natural or legal persons. Procedures are generally inquisitorial.
11583 justice The correct application of law as opposed to arbitrariness.
11587 trial A judicial examination and determination of issues between parties to action; whether they need issues of law or of fact. A judicial examination, in accordance with law of the land, of a cause, either civil or criminal, of the issues between the parties, whether of law or fact, before a court that has proper jurisdiction.
1159 carbohydrate Any of the group of organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, including sugars, starches and celluloses.
11594 court An organ of the government, belonging to the judicial department, whose function is the application of the laws to controversies brought before it and the public administration of justice. The presence of a sufficient number of the members of such a body regularly convened in an authorized place at an appointed time, engaged in the full and regular performance of its functions. A body in the government to which the administration of justice is delegated. A body organized to administer justice, and including both judge and jury. An incorporeal, political being, composed of one or more judges, who sit at fixed times and places, attended by proper officers, pursuant to lawful authority, for the administration of justice. An organized body with defined powers, meeting at certain times and places for the hearing and decision of causes and other matters brought before it, and aided in this, its proper business, by its proper officers, attorneys and counsel to present and manage the business, clerks to record and attest its acts and decisions, and ministerial officers to execute its commands, and secure due order in its proceedings.
1160 carbon A nonmetallic element existing in the three crystalline forms: graphite, diamond and buckminsterfullerene: occurring in carbon dioxide, coal, oil and all organic compounds.
11611 lease Any agreement which gives rise to relationship of landlord and tenant (real property) or lessor and lessee (real or personal property). Contract for exclusive possession of lands or tenements for determinate period. Contract for possession and profits of lands and tenements either for life, or for certain period of time, or during the pleasure of the parties.
11612 certification The formal assertion in writing of some fact.
11618 homologation The approval given by the judge of certain acts and agreements for the purpose of rendering them more binding and executory.
1162 carbonate A salt or ester of carbonic acid.
11621 notification Information concerning a fact, actually communicated to a person by an authorized person.
11623 pre-emption The right of first refusal to purchase land in the event that the grantor of the right should decide to sell.
11624 prescription Acquisition of a personal right to use a way, water, light and air by reason of continuous usage. Prescription is a peremptory and perpetual bar to every species of action, real or personal, when creditor has been silent for a certain time without urging his claim.
11627 repression The act, as by power or authority, of arresting or inhibiting the communication of ideas or facts as expressed in a practice, movement, publication or piece of evidence in a court proceeding.
11632 devolution The act of assigning or entrusting authority, powers or functions to another as deputy or agent, typically to a subordinate in the administrative structure of an organization or institution.
11633 pollutant flow The forward continuous motion or diffusion of polluting substances, or the rate or quantity in which polluting substances move from one place to another.
11635 ocean-air interface The sea and the atmosphere are fluids in contact with one another, but in different energy states - the liquid and the gaseous. The free surface boundary between them inhibits, but by no means totally prevents, exchange of mass and energy between the two. Almost all interchanges across this boundary occur most effectively when turbulent conditions prevail. A roughened sea surface, large differences in properties between the water and the air, or an unstable air column that facilitates the transport of air volumes from sea surface to high in the atmosphere. Both heat and water (vapor) tend to migrate across the boundary in the direction from sea to air. Heat is exchanged by three processes: radiation, conduction, and evaporation. The largest net exchange is through evaporation, the process of transferring water from sea to air by vaporization of the water.
11636 pollutant migration Uncontrolled movement, caused by percolation or other processes, of liquid or gaseous polluting materials from an original source area into other parts of an ecosystem.
11638 incidental pollution Pollution caused by oil spills, by the accidental release of radioactive substances, by the immission in water bodies or in the atmosphere of chemical substances deriving from industrial activities.
11639 bacteriological pollution Contamination of water, soil and air with pathogen bacteria.
1164 carbon cycle The cycle of carbon in the biosphere, in which plants convert carbon dioxide to organic compounds that are consumed by plants and animals, and the carbon is returned to the biosphere in inorganic form by processes of respiration and decay.
11641 diffuse pollution Pollution from widespread activities with no one discrete source, e.g. acid rain, pesticides, urban run-off etc.
11642 domestic pollution
11643 mineral pollution Pollution deriving from all classes of mining operations and having an adverse effect on aquatic life, water supplies and the recreational use of waters.
11644 organic pollution Pollution caused by animal or plant material derived from living and dead organisms that may contain pathogenic bacteria and negatively influences the environment.
11645 photochemical pollution Air pollution containing ozone and other reactive chemical compounds formed by the action of sunlight on nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons, especially those in automobile exhaust.
11646 land-based marine pollution
11647 toxic pollution Pollution by toxic substances that produce a harmful effect on living organisms by physical contact, ingestion, or inhalation.
11648 river disposal Discharge of solid, liquid or gaseous waste into a river.
11649 underground disposal The discharge, dumping or emission of wastes below the surface of the soil.
11651 urban pollutant
11661 prevention measure Measures taken in advance to prevent the occurrence of disasters or similar emergencies.
11662 protective measure Any precautionary action, procedure or installation conceived or undertaken to guard or defend from harm persons, property or the environment.
11671 strong acidity High degree of ionization of an acid in water solution.
11672 biomarker A normal metabolite that, when present in abnormal concentrations in certain body fluids, can indicate the presence of a particular disease or toxicological condition.
11675 biological contamination The presence in the environment of living organisms or agents derived by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and mammal and bird antigens that can cause many health effects.
11676 chemical contamination The addition or presence of chemicals to, or in, another substance to such a degree as to render it unfit for its intended purpose. Also refers to the result(s) of such an addition or presence.
11678 biological effect of pollution Effects of pollution on living systems.
1168 carbon dioxide A colourless gas with a faint tingling smell and taste. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is the source of carbon for plants. As carbon dioxide is heavier than air and does not support combustion, it is used in fire extinguishers. It is a normal constituent of the atmosphere, relatively innocuous in itself but playing an important role in the greenhouse effect. It is produced during the combustion of fossil fuels when the carbon content of the fuels reacts with the oxygen during combustion. It is also produced when living organisms respire. It is essential for plant nutrition and in the ocean phytoplankton is capable of absorbing and releasing large quantities of the gas. CO2
11686 irreversibility of the phenomenon That quality of a process that precludes a prior state from being attained again.
11691 quality objective Any goal or target established for a product, service or endeavor that aspires to attain a relatively high grade or level of excellence.
11692 solid particle Any tiny or very small mass of material that has a definite volume and shape and resists forces that would alter its volume or shape.
11693 purifying power Regenerative capacity of a system, of soils, water, etc.
1170 carbon dioxide tax Compulsory charges levied on fuels to reduce the output of carbon dioxide (CO2), which is a colourless and odourless gas substance that is incombustible.
11700 sensor The generic name for a device that senses either the absolute value or a change in a physical quantity such as temperature, pressure, flow rate, or pH, or the intensity of light, sound, or ratio waves and converts that change into a useful input signal for an information-gathering system.
11701 instrumentation Designing, manufacturing, and utilizing physical instruments or instrument systems for detection, observation, measurement, automatic control, automatic computation, communication, or data processing.
11702 metrology The science of measurement.
11706 observation satellite Man-made device that orbits the earth, receiving, processing and transmitting signals and generating images such as weather pictures.
11713 atrazine Herbicide belonging to the triazine group, widely employed and particularly in maize crops. It is highly toxic for phytoplancton and freshwater algae and, being highly soluble in water, it easily contaminates aquifers.
11714 organic nitrogen nitrogen chemically bound in organic molecules such as proteins, amines, and amino acids
11718 halogenated compound A substance containing halogen atoms.
1173 carbon monoxide Colorless, odourless, tasteless, non-corrosive, highly poisonous gas of about the same density as that of air. Very flammable, burning in air with bright blue flame. Although each molecule of CO has one carbon atom and one oxygen atom, it has a shape similar to that of an oxygen molecule (two atoms of oxygen), which is important with regard to it's lethality. CO
11734 sulphur monoxide A gas at ordinary temperatures; produces an orange-red deposit when cooled to temperatures of liquid air; prepared by passing an electric discharge through a mixture of sulfur vapor and sulfur dioxide at low temperature.
11745 pyralene Chemical compound belonging to the polychlorinated biphenyls family, used in the production of electrical equipment which requires dielectric fluid such as power transformers and capacitors, as well as in hydraulic machinery, vacuum pumps, compressors and heat-exchanger fluids.
11752 asbestosis A non-malignant progressive, irreversible, lung disease, characterized by diffuse fibrosis, resulting from the inhalation of asbestos fibers.
11762 genotoxicity
11763 intoxication The state of being poisoned; the condition produced by a poison which may be swallowed, inhaled, injected, or absorbed through the skin.
1177 carcass disposal The disposal of slaughtered animals, other dead animal bodies and animal body parts after removal of the offal products.
11771 biological test The laboratory determination of the effects of substances upon specific living organisms.
11779 total organic carbon The amount of carbon covalently bound in organic compounds in a water sample.
11781 chemical degradation The act or process of simplifying or breaking down a molecule into smaller parts, either naturally or artificially.
11782 laboratory test Tests, examinations or evaluations performed in a laboratory.
11786 biotic index Scale for showing the quality of an environment by indicating the types of organisms present in it (e.g. how clean a river is).
11787 oxidisable material Substance that can undergo a chemical reaction with oxygen.
11788 dissolved oxygen The amount of oxygen dissolved in a stream, river or lake is an indication of the degree of health of the stream and its ability to support a balanced aquatic ecosystem. The oxygen comes from the atmosphere by solution and from photosynthesis of water plants. The maximum amount of oxygen that can be held in solution in a stream is termed the saturation concentration and, as it is a function of temperature, the greater the temperature, the less the saturation amount. The discharge of an organic waste to a stream imposes an oxygen demand on the stream. If there is an excessive amount of organic matter, the oxidation of waste by microorganisms will consume oxygen more rapidly than it can be replenished. When this happens, the dissolved oxygen is depleted and results in the death of the higher forms of life.
11789 photodegradation The capability of being decomposed by prolonged exposure to light.
11791 insoluble substance Substance incapable of forming a solution, especially in water.
11792 non-volatile substance Substance that is not capable of changing from a solid or liquid form to a vapour.
11793 weakly degradable substance A substance that is not easily converted to another, usually less complex compound.
11794 volatile substance A substance capable of readily changing from a solid or liquid form to a vapour; having a high vapour pressure and a low boiling point.
11795 chemical corrosivity The tendency of a metal to wear away another by chemical attack.
11798 physicochemical analysis Analysis based on the physical changes associated with chemical reactions.
1180 carcinogenicity The ability or tendency of a substance or physical agent to cause or produce cancer.
11807 experimental study Study based on experimentation.
11809 granulometry 1) The determination of the different grain size in a granular material. 2) The proportion by weight of particles of different sizes in granular material.
1181 carcinogenicity test Test for assessing if a chemical or physical agent increases the risk of cancer. The three major ways of testing for carcinogens are animals tests, epidemiological studies and bacterial tests.
11812 drawing To cause to discharge from an abscess or wound or to obtain a sample of tissue or organic liquid for examination.
11813 chemical product A substance characterized by definite molecular composition.
11814 flammable product Material having the ability to generate a sufficient concentration of combustible vapors to produce a flame, if ignited.
11816 organoleptic property Properties that can be perceived by sense organs.
1182 carcinogen A substance that causes cancer in humans and animals.
11835 hearing system The system that is concerned with the perception of sound, is mediated through the organ of Corti of the ear in mammals or through corresponding sensory receptors of the lagena in lower vertebrates, is normally sensitive in man to sound vibrations between 16 and 27.000 cycles per second but most receptive to those between 2.000 and 5.000 cycles per second, is conducted centrally by the cochlear branch of the auditory nerve, and is coordinated especially in the medial geniculate body.
11836 cardiovascular system Those structures, including the heart and blood vessels, which provide channels for the flow of blood.
1184 cardiology The study of the heart.
1185 cardiovascular disease
11852 enterovirus Any of a subgroup of the picornaviruses infecting the gastrointestinal tract and discharged in feces, including coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and polioviruses; may be involved in respiratory disease, meningitis, and neurological disease.
11868 animal biology The scientific study of the natural processes of animals.
11869 plant biology The scientific study of the natural processes of plants.
11875 genetic pool The total number of genes or the amount of genetic information possessed by all the reproductive members of a population of sexually reproducing organisms.
11879 hearing acuity Effectiveness of hearing.
11889 decibel A unit used to express relative difference on power, usually between acoustic or electric signals, equal to ten times the common logarithm of the ratio of the two level.
11896 acoustical quality The characteristics of a confined space that determines its ability to enable music and speech to be heard clearly within it.
1190 Caribbean Area A geographical region bordered on the south by South America and Panama, and on the west by Central America, and consisting of the West Indian, and nearby, islands and the Caribbean Sea, a part of the western Atlantic Ocean.
11909 noise spectrum The range of frequencies occurring in the noise emitted by a source.
1191 carnivore An animal that eats meat.
11912 mechanical vibration A motion, usually unintentional and often undesirable, of parts of machines and structures.
11918 airborne noise Noise caused by the movement of large volumes of air and the use of high-pressure air.
11921 background noise Noise coming from source other than the noise source being monitored.
11922 rolling noise Deeply resounding, reverberating noise caused by the friction between car tyres and road surfaces.
11923 neighbourhood noise General noise from a local source (such as the noise of a factory) which is disturbing to people living in the area.
11927 acoustic comfort
11930 noise exposure plan A formulated or systematic method to prevent the effects of being subjected to loud or harsh sounds.
11958 tidal power station Power station where the generation of power is provided by the ebb and flow of the tides. The principle is that water collected at high tide behind a barrage is released at low tide to turn a turbine that, in turn, drives a generator.
11967 hydroelectric energy The free renewable source of energy provided by falling water that drives the turbines. Hydropower is the most important of the regenerable energy sources because of its highest efficiency at the energy conversion. There are two types of hydroelectric power plants: a) run-of-river power plants for the use of affluent water; b) storage power plants (power stations with reservoir) where the influx can be regulated with the help of a reservoir. Mostly greater differences in altitudes are being used, like mountain creeks. Power stations with reservoirs are generally marked by barrages with earth fill dam or concrete dams. Though hydropower generally can be called environmentally acceptable, there exist also some problems: a) change of groundwater level and fill up of the river bed with rubble. b) Risk of dam breaks. c) Great demand for land space for the reservoir. d) Diminution, but partly also increase of value of recreation areas. As the hydropowers of the world are limited, the world energy demand however is rising, finally the share of hydropower will decrease.
11974 small power station Power station of small size for the generation of energy at local level.
11975 water mill A mill whose power is provided by a large wheel which is turned by moving water, especially a river.
1198 ecological carrying capacity 1) The maximum number of species an area can support during the harshest part of the year, or the maximum biomass it can support indefinitely. 2) The maximum number of grazing animals an area can support without deterioration.
1199 carry-over effect Effect caused by the successive passages of polluting substances through the different organisms of a food chain.
11990 power station derating The process by which a power plant is finally taken out of operation.
120 adsorption The physical or chemical bonding of molecules of gas, liquid or a dissolved substance to the external surface of a solid or the internal surface, if the material is porous, in a very thin layer.
1200 cartography The making of maps and charts for the purpose of visualizing spatial distributions over various areas of the earth.
12004 radioelement An element that is naturally radioactive.
12006 fast reactor Nuclear reactor which produces more fissile material than it consumes, using fast-moving neutrons and making plutonium-239 from uranium-238, thereby increasing the reactor's efficiency.
12007 contaminated area Any site or region that is damaged, harmed or made unfit for use by the introduction of unwanted substances, particularly microorganisms, chemicals, toxic and radioactive materials and wastes.
12008 atmospheric aerosol Particulate matter suspended in the air. The particulate matter may be in the form of dusts, fumes, or mist. Aerosols in the atmosphere are the form in which pollutants such as smoke are dispersed.
1201 car tyre A rubber ring placed over the rim of a wheel of a road vehicle to provide traction and reduce road shocks, especially a hollow inflated ring consisting of a reinforced outer casing enclosing an inner tube.
12011 biofuel A gaseous, liquid, or solid fuel that contains an energy content derived from a biological source. The organic matter that makes up living organisms provides a potential source of trapped energy that is beginning to be exploited to supply the ever-increasing energy demand around the world. An example of a biofuel is rapeseed oil, which can be used in place of diesel fuel in modified engines. The methyl ester of this oil, rapeseed methyl ester (RME), can be used in unmodified diesel engines and is sometimes known as biodiesel. Other biofuels include biogas and gasohol.
12013 forest deterioration Reduction of tree population in forests caused by acidic precipitation, forest fires, air pollution, deforestation, pests and diseases of trees, wildlife, etc.
12017 ethanol A colorless liquid, miscible with water, used as a reagent and solvent. Also known as alcohol; ethyl alcohol; grain alcohol.
12022 motor vehicle pollution Pollution caused by gases vented to the atmosphere by internal-combustion-engine driven vehicles.
12026 atmospheric fallout The sedimentation of dust or fine particles from the atmosphere.
12027 clean air car Vehicles that function without emitting pollutants in the atmosphere.
1203 cash crop Crops that are grown for sale in the town markets or for export. They include coffee, cocoa, sugar, vegetables, peanuts and non-foods, like tobacco and cotton. Huge areas of countries in the developing world have been turned over to cash crops. Those countries with no mineral or oil resources depend on cash crops for foreign money, so that they can import materials do develop roads, for construction, or to buy Western consumer goods and, indeed, food. However, critics argue that cash crops are planted on land that would otherwise be used to grow food for the local community and say this is a cause of world famine. Cash crops, such as peanuts, can ruin the land if it is not left fallow after six years of harvests. Moreover, if the best agricultural land is used for cash crops, local farmers are forced to use marginal land to grow food for local consumption, and this has a further dramatic effect on the environment.
12045 palaeoclimatology The study of paleoclimates throughout geologic time, and of the causes of their variations, on either a local or a worldwide basis. It involves the interpretation of glacial deposits, fossils and sedimentologic and other types of data.
12060 continental climate A climate characterized by hot summers, cold winters, and little rainfall, typical of the interior of a continent.
12061 desert climate A climate type which is characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life; that is, a climate of extreme aridity.
12062 equatorial climate Climate characterized by constant temperatures, abundant rainfall and a very short dry season.
12063 Mediterranean climate A type of climate characterized by hot, dry, sunny summers and a winter rainy season; basically, this is the opposite of a monsoon climate. Also known as etesian climate.
12064 mountain climate Very generally, the climate of relatively high elevations; mountain climates are distinguished by the departure of their characteristics from those of surrounding lowlands, and the one common basis for this distinction is that of atmospheric rarefaction; aside from this, great variety is introduced by differences in latitude, elevation, and exposure to the sun; thus, there exists no single, clearly defined, mountain climate. Also known as highland climate.
12065 oceanic climate A regional climate which is under the predominant influence of the sea, that is, a climate characterized by oceanity; the antithesis of a continental climate.
12066 temperate climate The climate of the middle latitudes; the climate between the extremes of tropical climate and polar climate.
12067 tropical climate A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, that is, one with continually high temperatures and with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year.
12082 atmospheric inversion A temperature inversion in the atmosphere in which the temperature, instead of falling, increases with height above the ground. With the colder and heavier air below, there is no tendency to form upward currents and turbulence is suppressed. Inversions are often formed in the late afternoon when the radiation emitted from the ground exceeds that received from the sinking sun. Inversions are also caused by katabatic winds, that is cold winds flowing down the hillside into a valley, and by anticyclones. In inversion layers, both vertical and horizontal diffusion is inhibited and pollutants become trapped, sometimes for long periods. Low-level discharges of pollutants are more readily trapped by inversions than high level dischargers, hence the case for high stacks. Furthermore, high level discharges into an inversion tend to remain at a high level because of the absence of vertical mixing.
12084 thunderstorm A storm caused by strong rising air currents and characterized by thunder and lightning and usually heavy rain or hail.
1209 catalysis A phenomenon in which a relatively small amount of substance augments the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being consumed.
12091 glaze A coating of ice, generally clear and smooth but usually containing some air pockets, formed on exposed objects by the freezing of a film of supercooled water deposited by rain, drizzle, or fog, or possibly condensed from supercooled water vapour.
12096 exploitation of underground water The process of extracting underground water from a source.
12098 water infiltration into the ground The movement of surface water into soil or rock through cracks and pores.
121 adult A person who is fully grown, developed or of a specified age.
1210 catalyst A substance whose presence alters the rate at which a chemical reaction proceeds, but whose own composition remains unchanged by the reaction. Catalysts are usually employed to accelerate reactions(positive catalyst), but retarding (negative) catalysts are also used.
12104 water table Water that occupies pores, cavities, cracks and other spaces in the crustal rocks. It includes water precipitated from the atmosphere which has percolated through the soil, water that has risen from deep magmatic sources liberated during igneous activity and fossil water retained in sedimentary rocks since their formation. The presence of groundwater is necessary for virtually all weathering processes to operate. Phreatic water is synonymous with groundwater and is the most important source of any water supply.
12107 water catchment protection Precautionary actions, procedures or installations undertaken to prevent or reduce harm to the environmental integrity of drainage areas used to catch water, such as reservoirs or basins.
12108 water table protection Water table is inherently susceptible to contamination from landuse activities. Remediation is very expensive and often impractical. Prevention of contamination is therefore critical in effective groundwater management.
1212 catalytic converter Catalytic converters are designed to clean up the exhaust fumes from petrol-driven vehicles, which are otherwise the major threat to air quality standards in congested urban streets and on motorways. Converters remove carbon monoxide, the unburned hydrocarbons and the oxides of nitrogen. These compounds are damaging to human health and the environment in a variety of ways. The converter is attached to the vehicle' s exhaust near the engine. Exhaust gases pass through the cellular ceramic substrate, a honeycomb-like filter. While compact, the intricate honeycomb structure provides a surface area of 23.000 square metres. This is coated with a thin layer of platinum, palladium and rhodium metals, which act as catalysts that simulate a reaction to changes in the chemical composition of the gases. Platinum and palladium convert hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide and water vapour. Rhodium changes nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons into nitrogen and water, which are harmless.
12122 flood runoff The total quantity of water flowing from the catchment during the period of the flood.
12123 silting up The filling or partial filling with silt of a reservoir that receives fine-grained sediment brought in by streams and surface runoff.
12128 hydrometry The science and technology of measuring specific gravities, particularly of liquids.
1213 catastrophe A sudden, widespread disaster or calamity that greatly exceeds the resources of an area or region.
12131 flood forecast The hydrological processes generating river floods have been studied extensively and several modelling concepts have been proposed. The standard procedure for flood forecasting consists of calibrating the parameters of the model of a particular river basin on a representative set of historical hydrometric data and subsequently applying this calibrated model in a real-time environment.
12135 hydrographic network The configuration or arrangement in plan view of the natural stream courses in an area. It is related to local geologic and geomorphologic features and history. Synonym: drainage pattern.
12139 sedimentology The scientific study of sedimentary rocks and of the processes by which they were formed; the description, classification, origin, and interpretation of sediments.
12145 hydrographic basin 1) The drainage basin of a stream. 2) An area occupied by a lake and its drainage basin.
1215 catchment area 1) An area from which surface runoff is carried away by a single drainage system. 2) The area of land bounded by watersheds draining into a river, basin or reservoir.
12151 bathing freshwater Freshwater in which bathing is explicitly authorised or in which bathing is not prohibited and is traditionally practised by a large number of bathers. Water in such areas must meet specified quality standards relating to chemical, microbiological and physical parameters.
12152 demesnial water A body of water that is owned and maintained by a national governmental body or agency.
12153 non-demesnial water A body of water that is owned and maintained by an individual or entity other than the national government.
12161 bog A commonly used term in Scotland and Ireland for a stretch waterlogged, spongy ground, chiefly composed of decaying vegetable matter, especially of rushes, cotton grass, and sphagnum moss.
12165 water desalination Any mechanical procedure or process where some or all of the salt is removed from water.
12166 bathing seawater Sea waters in which bathing is explicitly authorised or in which bathing is not prohibited and is traditionally practised by a large number of bathers. Water in such areas must meet specified quality standards relating to chemical, microbiological and physical parameters.
12170 ocean outfall The mouth or outlet of a river, drain, sewer or any other place at which drainage or wastewater is discharged into a body of oceanic water.
12171 ocean exploitation The utilization of the ocean for its food resources, mineral resources, and energy and water sources.
12174 swell A regular movement of marine waves created by wind stress in the open ocean which travels considerable distances away from the generating field and into another wind field. The waves are characterized by relatively smooth, generally unbroken, crests and a fairly regular wavelength, but swell increases in wavelength and decreases in wave height as it moves away from the generating area. Local wind waves may be superimposed upon swell waves as they approach a coastline, thereby creating sharper crests and a choppy sea.
12183 estuary pollution Contamination of the generally broad portion of a stream near its outlet which is influenced by the tide of the water body into which it flows. Many estuaries have become badly contaminated by wastes that have been generated from heavily populated areas.
12189 river management The administration or handling of a waterway or a stream of flowing water.
12198 flushing Removing lodged deposits of rock fragments and other debris by water flow at high velocity; used to clean water conduits and drilled boreholes.
12199 canal lock A chamber with gates on both ends connecting two sections of a canal or other waterway, to raise or lower the water level in each section.
122 adult education Any instruction or training, informal or formal, which is geared to persons of mature age, regardless of previous education, and typically offered by university extension programs, employers, correspondence courses or community groups.
1220 catch yield The yield obtained from a given fishery; fishery catches should be strictly controlled so that the fish population can have a sufficient breeding mass and thus give a sustained yield for future generations.
12202 water weed cutting Cutting down by scythe or machine at intervals the vegetation growth and grasses on banks and berms of irrigation and drainage channels or cropped areas.
12204 bank protection Engineering work which aims at the protection of banks of a river, or slopes of embankments along it, from erosion by the current of flow, from floods, etc.
1221 category of endangered species Those of the planet's flora and fauna which are threatened with extinction. Hunting and poaching to fuel the trade in ivory, horn, skins, fur and feathers have long been a threat to already endangered species. Pollution, agricultural expansion, loss of wetlands, deforestation and other erosion of habitats have been added to the hazards. Human activity was responsible for most of the animals and plants known to have been lost in the past two centuries.
12210 retaining reservoir Basin used to hold water in storage.
12213 dam draining The drawing of water from a reservoir by means of draining pipes located at the bottom of the basin and controlled by a system of sluices which ensure, if necessary, the emptying of the basin in a given period of time in respect of downstream conditions.
12214 water corrosivity Complex series of reactions between the water and metal surfaces and materials in which the water is stored or transported. The corrosion process is an oxidation/reduction reaction that returns refined or processed metal to their more stable ore state. With respect to the corrosion potential of drinking water, the primary concerns include the potential presence of toxic metals , such as lead and copper.
12215 water quality improvement Progress in, or betterment of, the environmental condition and integrity of water.
12216 water taste Taste in water can be caused by foreign matter, such as organic compounds, inorganic salts or dissolved gases. These materials may come from domestic, agricultural or natural sources. Some substances found naturally in groundwater, while not necessarily harmful, may impart a disagreeable taste or undesirable property to the water. Magnesium sulphate, sodium sulphate, and sodium chloride are but a few of these. Acceptable waters should be free from any objectionable taste at point of use.
12219 green tide A proliferation of a marine green plankton toxic and often fatal to fish, perhaps stimulated by the addition of nutrients.
12220 suspended matter Matter suspended in a fluid by the upward components of turbulent currents or by colloidal suspension.
12226 water salinity The degree of dissolved salts in water measured by weight in parts per thousand.
12231 catchment A structure in which water is collected.
1224 cation A positively charged atom or group of atoms, or a radical which moves to the negative pole (cathode) during electrolysis.
12240 fountain A stream of water that is forced up into the air through a small hole, especially for decorative effect or the structure in a lake or pool from which this flows.
12248 water reservoir Artificial or natural area of water, used for storing water for domestic or industrial use.
1225 cattle Domesticated bovine animals, including cows, steers and bulls, raised and bred on a ranch or farm.
12254 water demineralisation The removal of minerals from water by chemical, ion-exchange, or distillation procedures.
12259 on-site wastewater treatment A process in which used or spent water is treated at the point of origin or where it was produced, by using a septic tank or some other system to remove or reduce the impact of constituent wastes on human health and the environment.
12260 collective wastewater treatment
12263 storm water basin Basin used to hold water which falls as rain during a storm.
12273 rain water sewer system Channels for clearing away rain water.
12275 separate sewer system Sewer system having distinct pipes for collecting superficial water and sewage water.
12276 combined sewer system A sewer intended to serve as a sanitary sewer and a storm sewer, or as an industrial sewer and a storm sewer.
12277 water aeration Addition of air to sewage or water so as to raise its dissolved oxygen level.
12278 individual wastewater treatment The process of using a natural system or mechanical device to collect, treat and discharge or reclaim wastewater from an individual dwelling without the use of community-wide sewers or a centralised treatment facility.
12279 sedimentation basin A basin in which suspended matter is removed either by quiescent settlement or by continuous flow at high velocity and extended retention time to allow deposition.
12280 trickling filter A system of secondary sewage treatment which is similar to self-purification action of streams; it is more accurately a biological oxidizing bed; the effluent is placed on the stones in the bed and microorganisms present consume the solids as a food supply.
12283 used water Wastewater or utilized water from a home, community, farm or industry, which is often discharged after utilization.
12284 urban wastewater The liquid wastes deriving from domestic, commercial and industrial activities of an urban settlement.
12285 waste treatment effluent Partially or completely treated water or waste water flowing out of a waste treatment plant.
12287 biological wastewater treatment Types of wastewater treatment in which biochemical or bacterial action is intensified to oxidize and stabilize the unstable organic matter present. Examples of this type of treatment use intermittent sand filters, trickling filters, and activated sludge processes and sludge digestion.
12289 lagooning The process in which sunlight, bacterial action and oxygen cause self-purification in waste water, Usually taking place in a shallow pond, or system of such ponds.
1229 cause for concern principle Principle connected with the precautionary principle: it means that, if there are strong reasons for expecting serious or irreversible damage to the environment following a given project, lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation. Critics of this approach are concerned about large commitments of resources to deal with vaguely defined problems.
12293 water regeneration A process in which naturally occurring microorganisms, plants, trees or geophysical processes break down, degrade or filter out hazardous substances or pollutants from a body of water, cleansing and treating contaminated water without human intervention.
12301 water resources management Measures and activities concerning the supply of water, the improvement of efficiency in its use, the reduction of losses and waste, water-saving practices to reduce costs and to slow the depletion of the water supply to ensure future water availability.
1231 cave 1) An underground hollow with access from the ground surface or from the sea, often found in limestone areas and on rocky coastlines. 2) A natural cavity, chamber or recess which leads beneath the surface of the earth, generally in a horizontal or obliquely inclined direction. It may be in the form of a passage or a gallery, its shape depending in part on the joint pattern or structure of the rock and partly on the type of process involved in its excavation. Thus, caves worn by subterranean rivers may be different in character from, and of considerably greater extent than, a sea-cave eroded by marine waves. 3) A natural underground open space, generally with a connection to the surface and large enough for a person to enter. The most common type of cave is formed in a limestone by dissolution.
12318 waste sorting unit Centralized recycling centres to which waste materials are brought and where they are separated.
12321 scrap dump Area where waste material, especially metal, is dumped.
12325 reclamation industry Industry for the transformation of solid waste into useful products.
12341 use of waste as energy source
12342 use of waste as material
12349 beach cleansing The process of removing dirt, litter or other unsightly materials from shore line property or surrounding areas.
12357 bulky waste Large items of waste material, such as appliances, furniture, large auto parts, trees, branches, stumps, etc.
12366 alkaline battery A primary cell that uses an alkaline electrolyte, usually potassium hydroxide, and delivers about 1.5 volts at much higher current rates than the common carbon-zinc cell. Also known as alkaline-manganese cell.
12367 electric battery A direct-current voltage source made up of one or more units that convert chemical, thermal, nuclear, or solar energy into electrical energy.
12377 pollution abatement waste Wastes resulting from the operations of pollutant removal from industries, cleaning processes, etc.
12379 health-care activities waste
12381 special industrial waste Discarded material produced in any industrial process for which there is no specified mode of disposal.
12382 metal waste Metal material discarded during manufacturing or processing operations which cannot be directly fed back into the operation; Worn or discarded metal materials removed from service at the end of its useful life.
12383 mineral waste Waste material resulting from ore extraction that is usually left on the soil surface.
1239 cell (biology) The microscopic functional and structural unit of all living organisms, consisting of a nucleus, cytoplasm, and a limiting membrane.
12390 wreck The hulk of a wrecked or stranded ship; a ship dashed against rocks or land and broken or otherwise rendered useless.
12394 mineral oil Oil which derives from petroleum and is made up of hydrocarbons.
12395 whey The watery liquid that separates from the curd when the milk is clotted, as in making cheese.
12417 sinking of waste A manner of waste disposal in which refuse or unwanted material is dumped or submerged beneath the surface of a body of water.
1242 cell (energy) The basic building block of a battery. It is an electrochemical device consisting of an anode and a cathode in a common electrolyte kept apart with a separator. This assembly may be used in its own container as a single cell battery or be combined and interconnected with other cells in a container to form a multicelled battery.
12429 residue of grinding Dust or other residue left after reducing a material to very small particles.
12430 treatment residue Material left over from the treatment of any type of waste.
12431 incineration residue Any material, solid or semisolid, left after processing in a device designed to reduce waste volume by combustion.
12435 clearing sludge
12436 dehydrated sludge Sludge whose water content has been reduced by physical means.
1244 cellulose The main polysaccharide in living plants, forming the skeletal structure of the plant cell wall; a polymer of beta-D-glucose linked together with the elimination of water to form chains of 2000-4000 units.
12441 residual waste sludge The excess, unusable semi-solids or sediment resulting from a wastewater treatment or industrial process.
12444 thickening Any process beyond gravity sedimentation that increases the concentration of solids in sludge with or without the use of chemical flocculants.
12446 sludge stabilisation Usually anaerobic sludge digestion, a treatment that stabilizes raw sludge. Fully digested sludge has little readily biodegradable organic matter. It is not smelly and about 50% of the solids are inorganic. Sludge can also be digested aerobically.
1245 cellulose industry
12450 industrial activity Operations, functions and processes involved in industrial production.
12456 industrial wasteland Area of land which is no longer usable for cultivation or for any other purpose after having been the site of an industrial plant.
12459 classified facility Facility that is forbidden to be disclosed outside a specified ring of secrecy for reasons of national security.
1247 cement A dry powder made from silica, alumina, lime, iron oxide, and magnesia which hardens when mixed with water; used as an ingredient in concrete.
12471 quartering The act of dismembering the carcass of an animal with the production of organic waste which if improperly disposed cause problems of pollution and fawl smells.
12476 piggery A place where pigs are kept and reared.
1248 cement industry Industry for the production of cement. The emissions of most relevance from this sector are atmospheric: dust, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides are the most important. Cement is essential for the construction sector, either directly or mixed with sand or gravel to form concrete.
12482 oil production (chain) The petroleum industry is a complex industry utilizing complex combination of interdependent operations engaged in the storage and transportation, separation of crude molecular constituents, molecular cracking, molecular rebuilding and solvent finishing to produce petrochemical products. Treatment may involve oil separation, precipitation, adsorption, and biological treatment. The refining operations can be divided into four major steps: separation, conversion, treating, and blending. The crude oil is first separated into selected fractions (gasoline, kerosine, fuel oil, etc.). Some of the less valuable products such as heavy naphtha, are converted to products with a greater sale value such as gasoline. The final step is the blending of the refined base stocks with each other and various additive to meet final product specifications. The major pollutants emitted are sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and malodorous materials.
12485 hydrocarbon storage tank A container or a reservoir for the storage of hydrocarbons.
12488 drilling for oil Boring a hole for extracting oil.
1249 cement manufacture Cement is produced by heating a mixture of clay or shale plus chalk or lime in a rotary kiln up to 250 m long per 8 m diameter rotating at 1 rpm. The process can be wet, semi-dry or dry and the fuel can be pulverized coal, oil or gas. As the coal ash is similar in composition to the clay or shale, it can stay in the cement clinker. As one of the kiln operator's major costs is fuel and even a modest sized kiln can consume 8-10 tons of coal per hour, the cement kiln could, therefore, solve a disposal problem and also benefit the cement manufacturer by reducing fuel costs.
12511 aggregate extraction Extraction of crushed rock or gravel screened to sizes for use in road surfaces, concretes, or bituminous mixes.
12514 mechanical industry A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of enterprises is engaged in the design, manufacture and marketing of mechanical apparatuses for commercial or industrial usage.
12525 timber producing chain All interrelated steps of the lumber manufacturing process including tree felling, the removal of tops, branches and bark, the piling and sawing of logs, and the transportation and loading of finished boards or other products.
12528 packing industry
1255 Central Africa A geographic region of the African continent close to the equator that includes Cameroon, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, the Central African Republic and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
1256 Central America A narrow continental region of the Western hemisphere, existing as a bridge between North and South America, often considered to be the southern portion of North America, and including countries such as Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama.
1257 Central Asia A geographic region of the Asian continent between the Caspian Sea on the west and China on the east, extending northward into the central region of Russia and southward to the northern borders of Iran and Afghanistan, and comprised of independent former republics of the Soviet Union, including Kazakstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.
12576 biofiltration The distribution of settled sewage on a bed of inert granular material through which it is allowed to percolate. In doing so, the effluent is aerated thus allowing aerobic bacteria and fungi to reduce its biochemical oxygen demand.
12583 dechlorination Removal of chlorine from a substance.
12586 engineering The science by which the properties of matter and the sources of power in nature are made useful to humans in structures, machines, and products.
12587 methanisation The process of deriving methane from any source, including livestock manure, landfills, coal mines, etc.
1259 central government A system in which a governing or administrative body has a certain degree of power or authority to prevail in the management of local, national and international matters.
12599 aerobic treatment The introduction of air into sewage so as to provide aerobic biochemical stabilization during a detention period.
126 advertisement The action of drawing public attention to goods, services or events, often through paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, television or radio.
12600 anaerobic treatment Breakdown of organic material without the presence of oxygen, a treatment which permanently removes the unpleasant odour of many organic wastes so that they can be used on agricultural land.
12601 biological treatment Process that uses microorganisms to decompose organic wastes either into water, carbon dioxide, and simple inorganic substances, or into simpler organic substances, such as aldehydes and acids. The purpose of a biological treatment system is to control the environment for microorganisms so that their growth and activity are enhanced, and provide a means for maintaining high concentration of the microorganisms in contact with the wastes.
12605 physicochemical treatment Any processing of wastewater, toxic substances or other materials involving a combination of physical and chemical methods, such as physical processes including air-stripping or filtration and chemical processes including coagulation, chlorination or ozonation.
12606 physical treatment Processes that separate components of a waste stream or change the physical form of the waste without altering the chemical structure of the constituent materials. Physical treatment techniques are often used to separate the materials within the waste stream so that they can be reused or detoxified by chemical or biological treatment or destroyed by high-temperature incineration.
12607 primary treatment Removal of floating solids and suspended solids, both fine and coarse, from raw sewage.
12608 secondary treatment Stage of the process of waste water treatment: following primary treatment by sedimentation, the second step in most wastewater systems in which biological organisms decompose most of the organic matter into a innocuous, stable form.
12609 tertiary treatment The process which remove pollutants not adequately removed by secondary treatment, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus; accomplished by means of sand filters, microstraining, or other methods (referring to wastewater treatment).
1261 centralisation
12611 vitrification Formation of a glassy or noncrystalline material.
1262 centrifugation Separation of particles from a suspension in a centrifuge: balanced tubes containing the suspension are attached to the opposite ends of arms rotating rapidly about a central point; the suspended particles are forced outwards, and collect at the bottoms of the tubes.
1265 cephalopod Exclusively marine animals constituting the most advanced class of the Mollusca, including squid, octopuses, and Nautilus.
12656 underground quarry Quarry located below the surface of the earth.
1266 ceramics The art and techniques of producing articles of clay, porcelain, etc. objects, products <baf>
12665 geotechnics The application of scientific methods and engineering principles to civil engineering problems through acquiring, interpreting, and using knowledge of materials of the crust of the earth.
12666 rock mechanics The theoretical and applied science of the physical behavior of rocks, representing a "branch of mechanics concerned with the response of rock to the force fields of its physical environment".
1267 ceramics industry Manufacturing plant producing ceramic items.
12676 bush clearing The removal of brush using mechanical means, either by cutting manually or by using machinery for crushing, rolling, flailing, or chipping it, or by chemical means or a combination of these.
12677 prevention of forest fires Precautionary actions, measures or installations implemented to avert the possibility of an unexpected conflagration of any large wooded area having a thick growth of trees and plants.
12687 flood protection Precautionary measures, equipment or structures implemented to guard or defend people, property and lands from an unusual accumulation of water above the ground.
12711 land restoration in mountain areas Measures adopted to control erosion and degradation phenomena in the mountain regions caused by the loss of forest cover due to acid rain, uncontrolled forest cutting, winter skiing resorts construction, etc.
12717 soil stability Soil stability depends on its shear strength, its compressibility and its tendency to absorb water. Stabilization methods include physical compaction and treatment with cement, lime, and bitumen.
12721 volcanology The branch of geology that deals with volcanism.
12746 antiseismic regulation Rules for minimizing or containing the risks deriving from earthquakes.
1275 cetacean Aquatic mammals, including the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
12763 civil safety Actions and measures undertaken, often at a local level, to ensure that citizens of a community are secure from harm, injury, danger or risk.
12764 industrial safety Measures or techniques implemented to reduce the risk of injury, loss and danger to persons, property or the environment in any facility or place involving the manufacturing, producing and processing of goods or merchandise.
12778 risk exposure The situation or set of circumstances where the probability of harm to an area or its population increases beyond a normal level.
12783 hazard area Any site or region in which there is a physical or chemical agent capable of causing harm to property, persons, animals, plants or other natural resources.
12784 technological accident An unexpected incident, failure or loss occurring through the application of practical or mechanical sciences to industry or commerce that poses potential harm to persons, property or the environment.
1279 Chagas' disease A form of trypanosomiasis found in South America, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, characterized by fever and often inflammation of the hearth muscle.
12790 ecocatastrophe A sudden, widespread disaster or calamity causing extensive damage to the environment that threatens the quality of life for people living in the affected area or region, potentially leading to many deaths.
12793 nuclear hazard Risk or danger to human health or the environment posed by radiation emanating from the atomic nuclei of a given substance, or the possibility of an uncontrolled explosion originating from a fusion or fission reaction of atomic nuclei.
1280 chain management The administration, organization and planning for the flow of materials or merchandise through various stages of production and distribution, involving a network of vendors, suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, retailers and other trading partners.
12807 major risk installation Installations whose functioning involves the possibility of major hazards such as chemical plants, nuclear, coal and oil power production plants, etc.
12808 dangerous installation Installations whose functioning involves the possibility of major hazards such as chemical plants, nuclear, coal and oil power production plants, etc.
12814 biotechnological hazard A danger to humans, animals or the environment posed by the application of advanced biological techniques in the manufacture of industrial products, such as the risk or harm that results from exposure to infectious bacteria, viruses or fungi.
12816 nuclear risk A risk connected to the functioning of nuclear power plants, by the storage or transportation of radioactive materials and involving the release of potentially dangerous levels of radioactive materials into the environment.
12819 dangerous materials transport Type of transport regulated by special safety rules.
12849 disaster zone Zone that has been stricken by a disaster and where measures must be taken to reduce the severity of the human and material damage caused by it.
1286 change in value
12861 danger analysis The process of evaluating the scale and probability of harm caused by any hazard to persons, property or the environment.
12866 preventive information Data communicated or received concerning the recommended means of averting risk of an accident, disaster or other undesirable and avoidable incident.
12872 risk exposure plan A scheme or method of acting that takes effect if the probability of harm to an area or its population increases beyond a normal level.
1288 channelling Any system of distribution canals or conduits for water, gas, electricity, or steam.
12887 damage insurance A commercial product which provides a guarantee against damage to property in return for premiums paid.
12889 pollution insurance A commercial agreement which provides protection against the risks, or a particular risk, associated with pollution, toxic waste disposal or related concerns.
12893 water damage Water damage can be caused by flooding, severe storms, tidal waves, seismic seawaves, storm surges, etc.
12898 damage assessment The evaluation or determination of losses, harm and injuries to persons, property or the environment.
129 product advertising The creation and dissemination of paid announcements or public notices to draw attention to goods, services or events offered by some entity, usually for purchase.
1290 charcoal A porous solid product containing 85-98% carbon and produced by heating carbonaceous materials such as cellulose, wood or peat at 500-600 C° in the absence of air.
12900 appraisal An expert or official valuation.
12905 compensation for damage Equivalent in money or other form for a loss sustained for an injury, for property taken, etc.
1291 negotiable charge
12912 public institution Institution for the management of public issues.
12913 public institution of administrative nature Public institution for the management of administrative issues.
12914 public institution of industrial and commercial nature Public institution for the management of industrial and commercial issues.
1292 map chart A map, generally designed for navigation or other particular purposes, in which essential map information is combined with various other data critical to the intended use.
12923 consultancy The position or practice of a qualified person paid for advice or services.
1296 chelicerate A subphylum of the phylum Artrophoda; chelicerae are characteristically modified as pincers.
12977 patent A grant of right to exclude others from making, using or selling one's invention and includes right to license others to make, use or sell it.
1298 chemical analysis The complex of operations aiming to determine the kinds of constituents of a given substance.
12982 press release An official statement or announcement distributed to members of the media by a public relations firm, government agency or some other organization, often to supplement or replace an oral presentation.
12985 speech An address or form of oral communication in which a speaker makes his thoughts and emotions known before an audience, often for a given purpose.
1299 chemical composition The nature and proportions of the elements comprising a chemical compound.
12994 environmental study A document submitted by an applicant in support of an undertaking which identifies the environmental impacts of the proposed undertaking and its alternatives.
13 absorption (exposure) The taking in of fluids or other substances by cells or tissues.
130 advice An official notice, opinion, counsel or recommendation that is optional or at the receiver's discretion.
13000 cinematographic film Any motion picture of a story, drama, episode or event, often considered as an art form or used as a medium for entertainment.
13001 documentary film Any motion picture or movie in which an actual event, era or life story is presented factually, with little or no fiction.
13002 flora (document) A work systematically describing the flora of a particular region, listed by species and considered as a whole.
13017 report to the minister A written account or statement describing in detail observations or the results of an inquiry into an event or situation and presented to any person appointed or elected to a high-level position within some political entity.
13021 parliamentary report A written account describing in detail observations or the results of an inquiry into an event or situation and presented to an official, deliberative body with legislative powers.
13025 statutory text A document or a portion thereof expressing an official enactment of a legislative body, with emphasis on the document's precise wording or language.
13026 thesis A dissertation on a particular subject, in which original research has been done, usually by a candidate for a diploma or degree, or a proposition put forward for consideration, to be discussed and proved or maintained against objections.
1303 chemical decontamination Removal of chemical substances from a building, a watercourse, a person's clothes, etc.
13040 CD-ROM A compact disc on which a large amount of digitalised read-only data can be stored. compact disc read-only-memory
13041 information centre Any facility devoted to the collection, maintenance and distribution of materials or data compiled to convey knowledge on some subject, often with trained staff persons available to answer questions.
1305 chemical engineering The branch of engineering concerned with industrial manufacture of chemical products. It is a discipline in which the principles of mathematical, physical and natural sciences are used to solve problems in applied chemistry. Chemical engineers design, develop, and optimise processes and plants, operate them, manage personnel and capital, and conduct research necessary for new developments. Through their efforts, new petroleum products, plastics, agricultural chemicals, house-hold products, pharmaceuticals, electronic and advanced materials, photographic materials, chemical and biological compounds, various food and other products evolve.
13053 technical information Factual data, knowledge or instructions relating to scientific research or the development, testing, evaluation, production, use or maintenance of equipment.
1306 chemical fallout The sedimentation of chemical substances accumulated in the atmosphere as a result of industrial emissions.
13060 information network A system of interrelated persons and/or devices linked to permit the exchange of data or knowledge.
1307 chemical fertiliser Fertilizer manufactured from chemicals; excessive use of them can cause pollution, when all the chemicals are not taken up by the plants and the excess is leached out of the soil into rivers and may cause algal bloom.
13077 assay Qualitative or quantitative determination of the components of a material, such as an ore or a drug.
13088 method A way of proceeding or doing something, especially a systematic or regular one.
13098 iron and steel industry Sector of the metallurgical industry dealing with the production of cast iron, steel and iron alloys. Emissions from these industries tend to settle quickly from the atmosphere and can lead to rising concentrations in the soil. The main raw material input to the production process is iron ore. Also recycled scrap is used.
1310 chemical industry Industry related with the production of chemical compounds. The chemical processing industry has a variety of special pollution problems due to the vast number of products manufactured. The treatment processes combine processing, concentration, separation, extraction, by-product recovery, destruction, and reduction in concentration. The wastes may originate from solvent extraction, acid and caustic wastes, overflows, spills, mechanical loss, etc.
13100 urban habitat The resulting effects and interrelationships of human population concentrations, the built environment, and the biophysical environment.
13101 wild fauna Not domesticated animals living independently of man.
13102 land management and planning Operations for preparing and controlling the implementation of plans for organizing human activities on land.
13104 rural habitat The biotopes located in areas where agriculture is practiced.
13106 groundwater quality Groundwater accounts for over 95% of the earth's useable fresh-water resources; over half the world's population depends on groundwater for drinking-water supplies. This invisible resource is vulnerable to pollution and over-exploitation. Effective conservation of groundwater supplies requires the integration of land-use and water management.
13107 target setting Establishing or determining environmental goals or objectives.
1311 chemical installation Building where chemicals are manufactured.
13111 ontogenesis The entire sequence of events involved in the development of an individual organism.
13115 land tax Property tax. A tax laid upon the legal or beneficial owner of real property, and apportioned upon the assessed value of his land.
13117 open lawn Any relatively unobstructed field of cultivated and mown grass, especially near a house or in a park.
13118 biological cycle A series of transformations or biological events which follow one after the other one, reaching at the end of the cycle the initial conditions, as in the life cycle of many animal and plant organisms.
1312 chemical oceanography
13120 human habitat Any of the conditions in which people live. Also all human settlements in villages, towns or major cities, which require environmental management to provide water, public spaces, remove public wastes, etc.
13121 urban concentration A process in which an increasing proportion of a country's population is concentrated in urban areas.
13122 home garden A plot of cultivated ground adjacent to a dwelling and usually devoted in whole or in part to the growing of herbs, fruits, flowers, or vegetables for household use.
13123 photography The process of forming visible images directly or indirectly by the action of light or other forms of radiation on sensitive surfaces.
13124 bottle cap
13127 iron scrap Waste pieces or disused articles of wrought iron (wrought-iron scrap) suitable for reworking for rolling or forging.
13135 voting The act of formally expressing an opinion or choice in some matter or for some candidate, usually by voice or ballot.
13136 agricultural structure The buildings, machinery, facilities, related to agricultural production.
13137 budget policy The programmatic use of a government's spending and revenue-generating activities to influence the economy and achieve specific objectives.
1314 chemical pest control Control of plants and animals classified as pests by means of chemical compounds.
13142 co-operation policy Political course of action aiming at establishing trade agreements among the states.
13143 international balance A system in which nations or blocs of nations strive to maintain an equilibrium of power to prevent dominance by any single nation or to reduce conflict or the possibility of war.
13145 Community finance The financial resources or income of the European Community, a body of people organized into a political unity.
13146 organisation of the legal system The specific manner, form and institutions by which a government's ability to make, enforce and interpret laws are brought together into a coordinated whole.
13147 rights 1) Title to or an interest in any property. 2) Any interest or privilege recognized and protected by law.
13148 economic structure The underlying framework, including transportation and communications systems, industrial facilities, education and technology, that enables a country or region to produce goods, services and other resources with exchange value.
13149 distributive trade Distribution of material goods to consumers, through retailing and wholesaling.
13150 monetary relations The different modes in which countries, nations, etc., are brought together by financial, currency, or pecuniary interests.
13151 monetary economics The study, policies or system of institutions and procedures by which a country or region's commerce is supplied with notes, coins, bank deposits or other equivalent mediums of exchange.
13152 free movement of capital The unrestrained flow of cash, funds, and other means of wealth between countries with different currencies.
13154 social framework The underlying structure that connects and supports the various members and parts of a community or human organization.
13156 social protection The monies and programs a society enacts through either public or private entities to provide economic security and general welfare for its members, often on account of old age, unemployment, health, disability or death of a spouse, parent or other benefactor.
13157 organisation of teaching A group or association of persons united to address the concerns, methods and professional status of instructors or educators.
13159 business organisation A particular legal arrangement for owning a firm, the principal forms are sale trades, partnerships and companies/corporations; collective term for the system, function, process of planning, providing, coordinating, directing all efforts and resources in a business in order to achieve its goals.
1316 chemical plant Plants where basic raw materials are chemically converted into a variety of products.
13160 business classification The categorization of enterprises or organizations involved in an economy.
13161 legal form of organisations The type, structure or purpose of an institution as arranged, required and defined by local or national laws to determine the appropriate governmental regulations, privileges and tax status applicable to that institution.
13164 cultivation of agricultural land Cultivation of land for the production of plant crops. Agricultural land may be employed in an unimproved state with few, if any, management inputs (extensive rangeland), or in an intensively managed state with annual inputs of fertilizer, pest, control treatments, and tillage.
13165 means of agricultural production
13167 processed agricultural produce
13168 agri-foodstuff Industry dealing with the production, processing, and supply of agricultural food products.
1317 chemical policy
13170 economic geography The geography of people making a living, dealing with the spatial patterns of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. The development of economic geography over the past three decades has witnessed the substitution of analysis for description, leading to an identification of the factors and an understanding of the processes affecting the spatial differentiation of economic activities over the earth's surface.
13177 credit The financial facility or system by which goods and services are provided in return for deferred, instead of immediate, payment.
13178 freedom The quality or state of being free, especially to enjoy political and civil liberties.
13179 industrial structure
1318 chemical pollutant
13182 stock (trade) Stored products ready for sale.
13183 sterilisation (biological) Procedure by which a human or other animal is made incapable of reproduction.
13184 environmental economics of firms The use of financial resources for the purpose of incorporating ecological principles in the operations of businesses and companies.
13186 yield (agricultural) The accumulated volume or biomass remaining from gross production after accounting for losses due to respiration during production, herbivory, litterfall, and other factors that decrease the remaining available biomass.
13187 environmental problem solving The activity of finding solutions for troublesome or perplexing situations involving ecological or natural resources.
13188 fodder plant Plants used to feed livestock.
13189 industrial plant (organism) Plants employed in industry, e.g. cotton, flax, hemp, peanuts, etc.
1319 chemical pollution Pollution caused by substances of chemical nature, including chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, metals as mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, etc.
13190 textile plant Plant producing material suitable to be made into cloths.
13191 tropical plant Plants growing in tropical areas in conditions of constant rain and high temperature.
13192 agricultural real estate Property of agricultural land and anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings, fences, etc.
13193 agricultural holding As defined by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, an agricultural holding is simply a basic unit for agricultural production.
13194 type of tenure The manner in which land is owned and possessed, i.e. of title to its use.
13195 geophysical environment The physical earth and its surroundings, consisting of the oceans and inland waters, lower and upper atmosphere, space, land masses and land forms.
13196 petrochemical Chemicals manufactured from the products of oil refineries, based largely on ethylene, propylene and butylene produced in the cracking of petrol fractions.
13197 speciality chemical Various fine chemical products like glue, adhesives, resins, rubber, plastic compounds, selective herbicide, etc.
13198 protein product
13199 processed foodstuff Food which has been treated to improve its appearance or to prevent it going bad.
132 aeration Exposition to the action of air.
1320 chemical process The particular method of manufacturing or making a chemical usually involving a number of steps or operations.
13200 convenience food Food so prepared and presented as to be easily and quickly ready for consumption.
13202 mining product
13205 root crop Plants which store edible material in a root, corm or tuber; root crops used as food vegetables or fodder include carrots, parsnips, swedes and turnips; starchy root crops include potatoes, cassavas and yams.
13207 cultivation system Any overall structure or set-up used to organize the activity of preparing land or soil for the growth of new crops, or the activity of promoting or improving the growth of existing crops.
13209 crop production The act or process of yielding produce from farmland, for livestock or human consumption.
13210 fisheries structure Refers to all the structures (fishing vessels, trawling nets, factory ships, catcher boats, etc.) used in fishing industry.
13211 fishing ground Area of sea or freshwater where fish are caught.
13212 coal industry Industry related with the technical and mechanical activity of removing coal from the earth and preparing it for market.
13213 energy industry Industry which converts various types of fuels as well as solar, water, tidal, and geothermal energy into other energy forms for a variety of household, commercial, transportation, and industrial application.
13214 communications industry
13215 information technology industry A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the design, manufacture and marketing of electronic machines designed to accept information or data that is easily manipulated for some result based on a program or some set of instructions, and the technology or materials used with these machines, such as storage devices, terminals and peripheral equipment.
13216 vacuum industry
13217 preparation for market The containment, protection, handling and presentation of goods for the market.
13218 precision engineering Research and development, design, manufacture and measurement of high accuracy components and systems. It is related to mechanical, electronic, optical and production engineering, physics, chemistry, and computer and materials science.
13219 materials technology Any technical means or equipment used for the production and optimization of material goods that consist of any of a diverse range of properties, either alone or in combination, such as glass, metal, plastics and ceramics.
1322 chemical property Properties of a substance depending on the arrangement of the atoms in the molecule, e.g. bio-availability, degradability, persistence, etc.
13220 military equipment Equipment necessary to the performance of military activities, either combat or noncombat.
13221 audiovisual equipment Equipment designed to aid in learning and teaching by making use of both hearing and sight.
13222 machinery A group of parts or machines arranged to perform a useful function.
13223 mechanical equipment Machines and tools employed in manual and mechanical labour.
13224 pressure equipment Equipment operating with an internal pressure greater than atmospheric.
13225 thermal equipment Equipment related to the production of heat.
13226 industrial manufacturing To make or process (a raw material) into a finished product, especially by means of a large-scale industrial operation.
13227 size of business
13228 business activity Any profit-seeking undertaking or venture that involves the production, sale and purchase of goods or services.
13229 branch of activity A specialized division of a business or other organization.
13231 administrative occupation
13232 building service The aggregation of services, including construction, development, maintenance and leasing, performed for human-occupied properties, such as office buildings and apartment houses.
13233 mode of transportation Type of vehicle used for moving from one place to the other.
13234 destination of transport The targeted place to which persons, materials or commodities are conveyed over land, water or through the air.
13236 degradation of the environment The process by which the environment is progressively contaminated, overexploited and destroyed.
13237 Community budget A schedule of revenues and expenditures for a specific time period that is devised by the European Community, a body of people organized into a political unity.
13238 economic support Any form of financial assistance or inducement for persons or institutions.
13239 accounting system The system of setting up, maintaining, and auditing the books of a firm and of analyzing its financial status and operating results.
1324 chemical reaction A change in which a substance is transformed into one or more new substances.
13240 economic forecasting The production of estimates of future financial and commercial trends, based on econometric models or surveys.
13241 customs tariff An official list or schedule setting forth the duties imposed by a government on imported or exported goods.
13242 commercial transaction The conduct or carrying on of trade, business or a financial matter to a conclusion or settlement.
13244 pay policy A course of action or procedure regarding compensation or recompensation for work done or services rendered.
13245 European Monetary System An organization established in Europe in 1979 to coordinate financial policy and exchange rates for the continent by running the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) and assisting movement toward a common European currency and a central European bank.
13246 money market A financial market that trades Treasury bills, commercial paper and other short-term financial instruments. This market is often used by businesses when they need short-term funds to bridge the gap between paying operating costs and collecting revenue from product sales. As such, the term "money" in money market indicates that businesses are using highly liquid instruments to raise the money need for operating expenses.
13247 exchange policy Course of action or procedure by government, business, or an individual concerning trade activities.
13248 credit policy An official course of action adopted by a business, financial institution or state to regulate, restrict or increase deferred payment arrangements for goods, services or money.
13249 public debt The total amount of all government securities outstanding. This is also frequently termed government debt.
13250 tax on consumption A sum of money demanded from businesses by a government, usually based on a percentage of total sales of select goods and services, and generally passed on to consumers with each individual purchase.
13251 tax on capital A government imposed levy on the wealth or assets gained by an individual, firm, or corporation for the purpose of raising revenue to pay for services or improvements for the general public benefit.
13252 income tax A tax on the annual profits arising from property, business pursuits, professions, trades or offices.
13253 taxation policy The use of government tax and spending policies to achieve desired macroeconomic goals. Accordingly, they involve discretionary efforts to adjust governmental tax and spending to induce changes in economic incentives and, hence, to stabilize fluctuations in aggregate demand.
13254 farm price The amount of money or monetary rate at which agricultural goods and services can be bought or sold.
13255 market price The price actually given in current market dealings; the actual price at which given stock or commodity is currently sold in the usual and ordinary course of trade and competition between sellers and buyers.
13256 transport cost The outlay or expenditure involved in moving goods from one place to another.
13257 prices policy The guiding procedure, philosophy, or course of action for decisions regarding the monetary rate or value for goods and services.
13258 economic concentration The extent to which a market is taken up by producers within a given industry.
13259 company structure The type of organization of a company. Three kinds of structure are usually recognized: centralized, formal or hierarchical.
1326 chemical risk Probability of harm to human health, property or the environment posed by contact with any substance of a defined molecular composition.
13260 financial management The management of acquisitions and the use of long- and short-term capital by a business.
13261 management accounting The collection and processing of financial information to assist with the handling, direction, or control of an organization.
13262 business policy The guiding procedure, philosophy or course of action for an enterprise or company organized for commercial purposes.
13263 restriction on competition Article 85(1) of the EEC Treaty prohibits all agreements between undertakings, decisions by associations of undertakings and concerted practices which may affect trade between member states and which have as their object or effect the prevention, restriction or distortion of competition within the common market. All such arrangements are automatically null and void under Article 85(2), unless exempted by the Commission pursuant to Article 85(3). The text of Article 85 is as follows: "1. The following shall be prohibited as incompatible with the common market: all agreements between undertakings, decisions by associations of undertakings and concerted practices which may affect trade between member states and which have as their object or effect the prevention, restriction or distortion of competition within the common market, and in particular those which: (a) directly or indirectly fix purchase or selling prices or any other trading conditions; (b) limit or control production, markets, technical development, or investment; (c) share markets or sources of supply; (d) apply dissimilar conditions to equivalent transactions with other trading parties, thereby placing them at a competitive disadvantage; (e) make the conclusion of contracts subject to acceptance by the other parties of supplementary obligations which, by their nature or according to commercial usage, have no connection with the subject of such contracts.
13264 private international law The part of the national law of a country that establishes rules for dealing with cases involving a foreign element.
13265 public international law The general rules and principles pertaining to the conduct of nations and of international organizations and with the relations among them.
13266 international economic law The recognized rules guiding the commercial relations of at least two sovereign states or private parties involved in cross-border transactions, including regulations for trade, finance and intellectual property.
13268 criminal liability
13269 public contract Any contract in which there are public funds provided though private persons may perform the contract and the subject of the contract may ultimately benefit private persons.
1327 chemical Any substance used in or resulting from a reaction involving changes to atoms or molecules.
13270 customs regulation A body of rules or orders generally issued by the executive authority of a government to establish and direct the taxes, duties or tariffs payable upon merchandise exported or imported.
13271 family law Branch of specialty of law, also denominated "domestic relations" law, concerned with such subjects as adoption, annulment, divorce, separation, paternity, custody, support and child care.
13272 traffic regulation A body of rules or orders prescribed by government or management for the safe and orderly movement of vehicles on land, sea or in the air.
13273 regulation of agricultural production A body of rules or orders prescribed by government, management or an international organization or treaty pertaining to the cultivation of land, raising crops, or feeding, breeding and raising livestock.
13274 law relating to prisons Binding rules and regulations pertaining to the construction, use and operation of jails, penitentiaries and other places of legal confinement and punishment.
13275 estate rental The service provided by an owner agreeing to grant the temporary possession of specific housing in return for the payment of rent from the tenant.
13276 data processing law
13277 competition law That part of the law dealing with matters such as those arising from monopolies and mergers, restrictive trading agreements, resale price maintenance and agreements involving distortion of competition affected by EU rules.
13278 restrictive trade practice Business operation or action that confines or limits the free exchange of goods and services within a country or between countries, which may include discrimination, exclusive dealings, collusion agreements or price fixing.
13279 EC Treaty
1328 chemicals act
13280 transport regulation A rule or order prescribed by government or management for the safe and orderly conveyance of persons, materials or commodities over land, water or through the air.
13281 Community legal system The directly applicable legislation of the European Community regulating the relations of member states.
13282 Community act
13283 ruling A judicial or administrative interpretation of a provision of a statute, order, regulation, or ordinance. May also refer to judicial determination of admissibility of evidence, allowance of motion, etc.
13284 legal procedure Term includes all proceedings authorised or sanctioned by law, and brought or instituted in a court of legal tribunal, for the acquiring of a right or the enforcement of a remedy.
13285 access to the courts The right of citizens to access to the organs of the governments where justice is administered.
13286 organisation (law) Term used in commercial law, including a corporation, government or governmental subdivision or agency, business trust, estate, trust, partnership or association, two or more persons having a joint or common interest, or any other legal or commercial entity.
13287 legal profession A body of persons whose occupation is concerned with advising clients in matters of law, representing them in court or assisting them through the judicial process, including, in the first instance, lawyers and, by extension, judges, legal assistants and court employees.
13288 legal system The organization and network of courts and other institutions, procedures and customs, officers and other personnel concerned with interpretation and enforcement of a country's law or with advice and assistance in matters pertaining to those laws.
13289 administrative organisation
13290 legislative procedure Any prescribed step or manner of proceeding that a law making body takes in proposing laws, resolutions or special acts before they can be enacted or passed.
13291 management technique systematic approach or method of performance for the accomplishment of administrative goals or tasks.
13292 institutional structure An organization's complex system of mutually connected and dependent elements or parts, which make up a definite manner of arrangement.
13293 institutional activity The specific tasks, undertakings or functions that governments, businesses and other organizations perform.
13294 common commercial policy The set of uniform trade principles or practices established by an European Community customs union, which implements common tariff rates, tariff and trade agreements with non-member countries, import and export policies, and export promotion.
13295 common tariff policy A course of action adopted and pursued by member countries, in which it is agreed to impose a system of duties or tax charges on imports from non-member countries.
13296 research policy
13297 construction policy A course of action adopted and pursued by government, business or some other organization, which plans or organizes for the maintenance, development and erection of houses, offices, bridges or other building structures.
13298 communications policy Measures and practices adopted by governments relating to the management of communication media.
13299 production policy Measures and activities promoted by governments aiming at the structural definition of the productive apparatus.
1330 chemical in the environment The presence in the environment of any solid, liquid or gaseous material discharged from a process and that may pose substantial hazard to human health and the environment.
13300 space policy A course of action adopted and pursued by government or some other organization, which seeks to support research and the exploration of planets, asteroids and other elements in the region beyond earth's atmosphere or beyond the solar system.
13301 economic region A district or an administrative division of a city or territory that is designed according to some material, distributive or productive criteria.
13302 aid policy A course of action adopted and pursued by government or some other organization that promotes or determines the allocation of assistance, support or relief, often from one country to another.
13303 humanitarian aid The support or relief given to save human lives or to alleviate suffering, including public health efforts and the provision of financial resources and food, often when governmental authorities are unable or unwilling to provide for such assistance.
13304 international conflict A controversy, disagreement, quarrel or warfare between or among two or more nations or countries, often requiring involvement or monitoring by other members of the global community.
13305 peacekeeping The activities to prevent, contain, moderate and/or terminate the hostilities between or within States, through the medium of an impartial third party intervention, organised and directed internationally. This intervention is conducted using military forces, police and civilians with the consent of the main belligerents, to complement the diplomatic conflict resolution process and, to restore and maintain peace.
13306 pollution control measure Procedure or course of action taken to curb or reduce human-made or human-alteration of the physical, biological, chemical and radiological integrity of air, water and other media.
13307 level of education A position along a scale of increasingly advanced training marking the degree or grade of instruction either obtained by an individual, offered by a some entity or necessary for a particular job or task.
13308 general education Informal learning or formal instruction with broad application to human existence beyond the domain of any particular subject or discipline, often equated with liberal arts in the university setting and contrasted to courses required for a specific major or program.
13309 schoolwork The material studied in or for an educational institution, comprising homework and work done in the classroom.
13310 school life Any part or the sum of experiences had while attending an instructional institution, or the amount of time spent in such a program.
13311 teaching material An article or device used to facilitate the learning process in an instructional setting.
13312 documentary system A coordinated assemblage of people, devices or other resources providing written, printed or digitized items that furnish or substantiate information or evidence.
13313 means of communication The agents, instruments, methods or resources used to impart or interchange thoughts, opinions or information.
13314 communications system A coordinated assemblage of people, devices or other resources designed to exchange information and data by means of mutually understood symbols.
13316 data processing system An assembly of computer hardware, firmware and software configured for the purpose of performing various operations on digital information elements with a minimum of human intervention.
13317 social analysis
13318 behavioural science The study of the behaviour of organisms.
13319 health care profession
1332 testing of chemicals The determination of the efficacy and the toxicity of chemical products.
13320 artificial reproductive technique
13321 animal health
13324 war victim A person that suffers from the destructive action undertaken as a result of an armed conflict between two or more parties, particularly death, injury, hardship, loss of property or dislocation.
13325 internal migration A population shift occurring within national or territorial boundaries, often characterized by persons seeking labor opportunities in more advantageous areas.
13326 geographical distribution of population The number of inhabitants in or spread across designated subdivisions of an area, region, city or country.
13327 composition of population The constituent groupings and proportions of the total inhabitants of a given nation, area, region or city, as seen from various perspectives.
13329 rights of the individual Just claims, legal guarantees or moral principles accorded to each and every member of a group or state, including the freedom to do certain things and the freedom from certain intrusions imposed by the collective body.
1333 chemical structure The arrangement of atoms in a molecule of a chemical compound.
13330 economic rights The just claims and legal guarantees to access, participate in and profit from the production, distribution and use of property, intellectual property, income and wealth.
13333 trend of opinion The general movement, drift or direction of change in a viewpoint collectively and purportedly held by a significant number of people.
13335 political ideology A belief system that explains and justifies a preferred economic and governmental order for society, offers strategies for its maintenance or attainment and helps give meaning to public events, personalities and policies.
13336 marital status The standing of an individual with regard to a legally recognized conjugal relationship, either in the present or past.
13337 socio-cultural group A collection of people who interact and share a sense of unity on account of a common ethnic, ancestral, generational or regional identity.
13338 employment structure The organization and proportions of the various job types and skill levels in an enterprise or economy.
13339 occupational status
13340 termination of employment The act or instrument by which the binding force of a contract is terminated, irrespective of whether the contract is carried out to the full extent contemplated or is broken off before complete execution.
13341 working population engaged in agriculture The number of a particular region or nation's working population gainfully employed or otherwise occupied with the production of crops, livestock or poultry.
13342 leave on social grounds
13343 labour force
1336 chemical treatment Processes that alter the chemical structure of the constituents of the waste to produce either an innocuous or a less hazardous material. Chemical processes are attractive because they produce minimal air emissions, they can often be carried out on the site of the waste generator, and some processes can be designed and constructed as mobile units.
1337 chemical treatment of waste
1341 chemical waste Any by-product of a chemical process, including manufacturing processes. Often this by-product is considered a toxic or polluting substance.
1343 chemical weapon Chemical agents of warfare include all gaseous, liquid or solid chemical substances which might be employed because of their direct toxic effects on man and animals. Chemical weapons also include the chemical's precursors, the munitions and devices designed to deliver them, and any equipment specifically designed for their use in warfare. Nerve agents (chemicals of the same family as organophosphorous insecticides) are the most lethal of the classical chemical warfare agents, killing by poisoning the nervous system and disrupting bodily functions. Other chemical weapons include blister agents, vesicants, choking agents, etc.
1347 chemisorption The process of chemical adsorption.
1348 chemistry The scientific study of the properties, composition, and structure of matter, the changes in structure and composition of matter, and accompanying energy changes.
135 aerial photograph An image of the ground surface made on a light-sensitive material and taken at a high altitude from an aircraft, spacecraft or rocket.
1350 child A person below the age of puberty.
1355 chimney A vertical structure of brick, masonry, or steel that carries smoke or steam away from a fire, engine, etc.
13550 camp 1) A place where tents, cabins, or other temporary structures are erected for the use of military troops, for training soldiers, etc. 2) Tents, cabins, etc., used as temporary lodgings by a group of travellers, holiday-makers, Scouts, Gypsies, etc.
13552 bank (land) The sloping side of any hollow in the ground, especially when bordering a river.
13553 wood hauling The process of removing forest produce, particularly timber, fuelwood and bamboos, from its place of growth to some permanent or major delivery point, either for further transport or further manufacture, i.e. secondary conversion, or both.
13555 royalty Compensation for the use of a person's property, based on an agreed percentage of the income arising from its use.
13556 chart (act) A formal written record of transactions, proceedings, etc., as of a society, committee, or legislative body.
13557 animal excrement Waste matter discharged from the body of an animal.
1356 chimney height The appropriate height for chimneys serving industrial combustion plants in order to avoid unacceptable pollution.
13560 allowance
13561 maintenance (technical) The upkeep of industrial facilities and equipment.
13562 paint room A portion of space within a commercial establishment that is used for applying coloring substances to certain products or materials, providing a decorative or protective coating.
13567 salina A place where crystalline salt deposits are formed or found, such as a salt flat or pan, a salada, or a salt lick.
13568 hiking trail A trail in the country along which one can walk, usually for pleasure or exercise.
13570 overflow (outlet) Any device or structure that conducts excess water or sewage from a conduit or container.
13572 cutting (vegetative propagation) In plant propagation, young shoots or stems removed for the purpose of growing new plants by vegetatively rooting the cuttings.
13576 eco-balance An eco-balance refers to the consumption of energy and resources and the pollution caused by the production cycle of a given product. The product is followed throughout its entire life cycle, from the extraction of the raw materials, manufacturing and use, right through to recycling and final handling of waste.
13577 nitrogen oxide A colorless gas that, at room temperature, reacts with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide; may be used to form other compounds. NOx
13613 oven An enclosed heated compartment usually lined with a refractory material used for drying substances, firing ceramics, heat-treating, etc.
1362 chiropteran Order of placental mammals comprising the bats having the front limbs modified as wings.
13639 bovine
1366 chloride A compound which is derived from hydrochloric acid and contains the chlorine atom in the -1 oxidation state.
1368 chlorinated hydrocarbon A class of persistent, broad-spectrum insecticides that linger in the environment and accumulate in the food chain. Among them are DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, chlordane, lindane, endrin, mirex, hexachloride, and toxaphene. In insects and other animals these compounds act primarily on the central nervous system. They also become concentrated in the fats of organisms and thus tend to produce fatty infiltration of the heart and fatty degeneration of the liver in vertebrates. In fishes they have the effect of preventing oxygen uptake, causing suffocation. They are also known to slow the rate of photosynthesis in plants. Their danger to the ecosystem resides in their rate stability and the fact that they are broad-spectrum poisons which are very mobile because of their propensity to stick to dust particles and evaporate with water into the atmosphere.
13697 approval
1371 chlorination The application of chlorine to water, sewage or industrial wastes for disinfection or other biological or chemical purposes.
13722 cleansing The act or process of washing, laundering or removing dirt and other unwanted substances from the surface of an object, thing or place.
1373 chlorine A very reactive and highly toxic green, gaseous element, belonging to the halogen family of substances. It is one of the most widespread elements, as it occurs naturally in sea-water, salt lakes and underground deposits, but usually occurs in a safe form as common salt (NaCl). Commercially it is used in large quantities by the chemical industry both as an element to produce chlorinated organic solvents, like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and for the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride plastics, thermoplastic and hypochlorite bleaches. Chlorine was the basis for the organochlorine pesticides, like DDT and other agricultural chemicals that have killed wildlife. The reactivity of chlorine has proved disastrous for the ozone layer and has been the cause of the creation of the ozone hole, which was first detected in the Southern Hemisphere over Antarctica and then over the Northern Hemisphere.
13748 inner city 1) Part of a city at or near the centre, especially a slum area where poor people live in bad housing. 2) City centres of many industrialized countries which exhibit environmental degradation. The numerous and highly competitive activities entailing land use overwhelm the limited space and create a situation of overcrowding, functional incompatibility and cultural degradation. Inner city areas have a high level of commercial specialization, a large number of offices and a sizeable daytime population. At the same time, city centres generally remain a sort of ghetto for a permanent, low-income population living in run-down housing and enjoying little in the way of public services and civic amenities. The concentration of service industries inevitably entails the replacement of traditional housing and shops by office blocks, the provision of basic utilities at the expense of civic amenities and the provision of major access roads which eat up urban space. Structures of historic origin are often unable to meet modern requirements and, notwithstanding their value, frequently face demolition.
1378 chloroethylene A flammable, explosive gas with an ethereal aroma; soluble in alcohol and ether, slightly soluble in water; boils at -14° C; an important monomer for polyvinyl chloride and its copolymers; used in organic synthesis and in adhesives.
13781 sluice-gate A valve or gate fitted to a sluice to control the rate of flow of water.
1381 chlorofluorocarbon Gases formed of chlorine, fluorine, and carbon whose molecules normally do not react with other substances; they are therefore used as spray can propellants because they do not alter the material being sprayed.
13839 noise effect
1384 CFC and halons prohibition An interdiction on the manufacture or use of products that discharge chlorofluorocarbons and bromine-containing compounds into the atmosphere, thereby contributing to the depletion of the ozone layer.
1385 partially halogenated chlorofluorohydrocarbon Hydrocarbons whose hydrogen atoms have been partially substituted with chlorine and fluorine. They are used in refrigeration, air conditioning, packaging, insulation, or as solvents and aerosol propellants. Because they are not destroyed in the lower atmosphere they drift into the upper atmosphere where their chlorine components destroy ozone.
1389 chlorophenol Major group of chlorinated hydrocarbons, pesticides and biocides which account for a very high percentage of the non-agricultural pesticide use, such as anti-rotting agents in non-woollen textiles and wood preservatives. The chlorophenols act as biocides by inhibiting the respiration and energy-conversion processes of the microorganisms. They are toxic to man above 40 parts per million, to fish above 1 ppm, whilst concentrations as low as one part per thousand million can taint water.
1391 chlorophyll A green pigment, present in algae and higher plants, that absorbs light energy and thus plays a vital role in photosynthesis. Except in Cyanophyta (blue-green algae), chlorophyll is confined to chloroplasts. There are several types of chlorophyll, but all contain magnesium and iron. Some plants (e.g., brown algae, red algae, copper beech trees) contain additional pigments that masks the green of their chlorophyll.
13921 deciduous wood
13922 mixed woodland
1393 chlorosis A disease condition of green plants seen as yellowing of green parts of the plants.
13937 penal sanction Punishment for the commission of a specific crime, such as fines, restitution, probation and imprisonment.
13976 coniferous tree
1399 chromatographic analysis The analysis of chemical substances that are poured into a vertical glass tube containing an adsorbent where the various components of the substance move through the adsorbent at different rates of speed according to their degree of attraction to it, thereby producing bands of color at different levels of the adsorption column.
1400 chromatography A method of separating and analyzing mixtures of chemical substances by selective adsorption in a column of powder or on a strip of paper.
1401 chromium A hard grey metallic element that takes a high polish, occurring principally in chromite: used in steel alloys and electroplating to increase hardness and corrosion-resistance.
1406 chrysophyta The golden-brown and orange-yellow algae; a diverse group of microscopically small algae which inhabit fresh and salt water, many being planktonic. They contain carotenoid pigments and may be unicellular, colonial, filamentous or amoeboid.
14082 emergency lodging Housing or dwelling space provided for victims of a sudden, urgent and usually unexpected occurrence, especially when harm has been done to human life, property or the environment.
14098 sorting at source The classification and separation of solid waste, according to type, at the location where it is generated.
1410 church A building for religious activities.
14146 coastal management Measures by way of planning, prior approval of works, prohibition of some activities, physical structures, and restoration efforts to protect the coastline against the ravages of nature and haphazard and unplanned developments.
14163 ministry building Any structure or edifice occupied by a body of top government administrators or other high ranking public officials selected or appointed by a head of state to manage certain aspects of a state's affairs.
14165 aerial photography
1419 citizen awareness State of citizens of being aware of their civic obligations.
14194 swamp A permanently waterlogged area in which there is often associated tree growth, e.g. mangroves in hot climates.
14208 legislative process The entire course of action necessary to bring a law, resolution or special act to an authoritative, legally binding status.
1421 city Term used generically today to denote any urban form but applied particularly to large urban settlements. There are, however, no agreed definitions to separate a city from the large metropolis or the smaller town.
1422 city centre The central part of a city.
14236 returnable container Container whose return from the consumer or final user is assured by specific means (separate collection, deposits, etc.), independently on its final destination, in order to be reused, recovered or subjected to specific waste management operations.
14243 waste gas dispersion The process of breaking up and producing a diffuse distribution of the unusable aeriform fluid or suspension of fine particles in air resulting from a manufacturing process or the burning of a substance in an enclosed area.
14245 intermediate product Product that has undergone a partial processing and is used as raw material in a successive productive step.
14254 mutagenic substance Agents that induce a permanent change in the genetic material.
1426 municipal dumping Place where a town's refuse is disposed of after it has been collected.
143 aerobic condition Life common to the majority of animal and plants species requiring the presence of oxygen.
1431 civil air traffic Air traffic pertaining to or serving the general public, as distinguished from military air traffic.
14330 teratogenic substance Substances capable of causing abnormal development of the embryo and congenital malformations.
1434 civil engineering The planning, design, construction, and maintenance of fixed structures and ground facilities for industry, transportation, use and control of water or occupancy.
1436 civilian protection The organization and measures, usually under governmental or other authority depending on the country, aimed at preventing, abating or fighting major emergencies for the protection of the civilian population and property, particularly in wartime.
1437 civil law Law inspired by old Roman Law, the primary feature of which was that laws were written into a collection; codified, and not determined, as is common law, by judges. The principle of civil law is to provide all citizens with an accessible and written collection of the laws which apply to them and which judges must follow.
14418 municipal heating network System of heating all houses in a urban district from a central source (as from hot springs in Iceland or by cooling water from a power station).
1445 claim for restitution A legal remedy in which a person or party may demand or assert the right to be restored to a former or original position prior to loss, damage or injury.
1446 class action suits law Legal action initiated by a single person or a few people on behalf of a group with similar claim or claims.
1447 classification An arrangement or organization of persons, items or data elements into groups by reason of common attributes, characteristics, qualities or traits.
1449 clay A loose, earthy, extremely fine-grained, natural sediment or soft rock composed primarily of clay-size or colloidal particles and characterized by high plasticity and by a considerable content of clay mineral and subordinate amounts of finely divided quartz, decomposed feldspar, carbonates, ferruginous matter, and other impurities; it forms a plastic, moldable mass when finely ground and mixed with water, retains its shape on drying, and becomes firm, rocklike and permanently hard on heating or firing.
14499 excise
14507 dipteran
14543 coniferous wood
1456 cleaning up The process of bringing desert, marsh, sea coast or other waste or unproductive land into use or cultivation.
1457 cleansing department A division, usually within municipal government, responsible for providing services that remove dirt, litter or other unsightly materials from city or town property.
1458 cleansing product
14581 underground railway An electric passenger railway operated in underground tunnels.
14588 government contracting
146 aerobic process A process requiring the presence of oxygen.
1460 clean technology Industrial process which causes little or no pollution.
14602 genetically modified organism An organism that has undergone external processes by which its basic set of genes has been altered.
14615 pleasure cruising The activity of rowing, sailing or using a boat over a particular region of water, for amusement or enjoyment.
14619 surface active compound Any soluble substance composed of two or more unlike atoms held together by chemical bonds that reduces interfacial tension between liquids or a liquid and a solid, often used as detergents, wetting agents and emulsifiers.
1462 climate The average weather condition in a region of the world. Many aspects of the Earth's geography affect the climate. Equatorial, or low, latitudes are hotter than the polar latitudes because of the angle at which the rays of sunlight arrive at the Earth's surface. The difference in temperature at the equator and at the poles has an influence on the global circulation of huge masses of air. Cool air at the poles sinks and spreads along the surface of the Earth towards the equator. Cool air forces its way under the lower density warmer air in the lower regions, pushing the lighter air up and toward the poles, where it will cool and descend.
14636 pH-value
1464 climatic effect Climate has a central influence on many human needs and activities, such as agriculture, housing, human health, water resources, and energy use. The influence of climate on vegetation and soil type is so strong that the earliest climate classification schemes where often based more on these factors than on the meteorological variables. While technology can be used to mitigate the effects of unfavorable climatic conditions, climate fluctuations that result in significant departures from normal cause serious problems for modern industrialized societies as much as for primitive ones. The goals of climatology are to provide a comprehensive description of the Earth's climate, to understand its features in terms of fundamental physical principles, and to develop models of the Earth's climate that will allow the prediction of future changes that may result from natural and human causes.
14651 craft industry
14652 animal remain Any substances or components left over from animal life, including body parts and, later, decomposed materials.
1466 climate protection Precautionary actions, procedures or installations undertaken to prevent or reduce harm from pollution to natural weather conditions or patterns, including the prevailing temperature, atmospheric composition and precipitation.
14663 chart (nautical) A map for navigation that delineates a portion of the sea, indicating the outline of the coasts and the position of rocks, sandbanks and other parts of a sea.
1467 climate resource
14671 nature conservation policy
1469 climate type Weather conditions typical of areas roughly corresponding to lines of latitude.
1470 climatic alteration The slow variation of climatic characteristics over time at a given place. This may be indicated by the geological record in the long term, by changes in the landforms in the intermediate term, and by vegetation changes in the short term.
1471 climatic change The long-term fluctuations in temperature, precipitation, wind, and all other aspects of the Earth's climate. External processes, such as solar-irradiance variations, variations of the Earth's orbital parameters (eccentricity, precession, and inclination), lithosphere motions, and volcanic activity, are factors in climatic variation. Internal variations of the climate system, e.g., changes in the abundance of greenhouse gases, also may produce fluctuations of sufficient magnitude and variability to explain observed climate change through the feedback processes interrelating the components of the climate system.
14717 environmental sanitation
1473 climatic experiment Experiments conducted to estimate future climatic conditions employing modelling of the physical processes underlying climatic change and variability; also, assessments are required of uncertain future man-made inputs such as increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide and other green-house gases.
1474 climatic factor Physical conditions that determine the climate in a given area, e.g. latitude, altitude, ocean streams, etc.
1476 climatic zone A belt of the earth's surface within which the climate is generally homogeneous in some respect; an elemental region of a simple climatic classification.
1479 climatology That branch of meteorology concerned with the mean physical state of the atmosphere together with its statistical variations in both space and time as reflected in the weather behaviour over a period of many years.
148 aerobiology The study of the atmospheric dispersal of airborne fungus spores, pollen grains, and microorganisms; and, more broadly, of airborne propagules of algae and protozoans, minute insects such as aphids, and pollution gases and particles which exert specific biologic effects.
1480 climax A botanical term referring to the terminal community said to be achieved when a sere (a sequential development of a plant community or group of plant communities on the same site over a period of time) achieves dynamic equilibrium with its environment and in particular with its prevailing climate. Each of the world's major vegetation climaxes is equivalent to a biome. Many botanists believe that climate is the master factor in a plant environment and that even if several types of plant succession occur in an area they will all tend to converge towards a climax form of vegetation.
1481 climbing plant (wall) A plant that lacks rigidity and grows upwards by twining, scrambling, or clinging with tendrils and suckers.
1482 clinical symptom Any objective evidence of disease or of a patient's condition founded on clinical observation.
14835 green fiscal instrument
14837 mining The act, process or industry of extracting coal, ores, etc. from the earth.
1484 cloning The production of genetically identical individuals from a single parent. Cloning plants usually involves plant cell culture. Cloning animals is more difficult and relays on some manipulation of their normal reproductive cycle. A clone is a group of organisms of identical genetic constitution, unless mutation occurs, produced from a single individual by asexual reproduction, parthenogenesis or apomixis.
14842 Black Sea
14843 Caspian Sea
14844 Mediterranean Sea The largest inland sea between Europe, Africa and Asia, linked to the Atlantic Ocean at its western end by the Strait of Gibraltar, including the Tyrrhenian, Adriatic, Aegean and Ionian seas, and major islands such as Sicily, Sardina, Corsica, Crete, Malta and Cyprus.
14845 indigenous knowledge Local knowledge that is unique to a given culture or society, which is the basis for local-level decision making in agriculture, health care, education and other matters of concern in rural communities.
14847 professional society A group of persons engaged in the same profession, business, trade or craft that is organized or formally structured to attain common ends.
14848 subject
14849 persistant organic pollutant Organic pollutants that do not break down chemically and remain in the environment. Pollutants with higher persistence may produce more harmful environmental effects.
14850 sediment mobilisation The transport or setting in motion by wind or water of insoluble particulate matter.
14851 habitat destruction Destruction of wildlife habitats by increasing pressure for land by fast-growing human populations, pollution and over-exploitation. Whole species or populations of plants and animals have disappeared causing a loss of genetic resource that is not only regrettable from an aesthetic or philosophical point of view but also threatens man's food supply. Habitat loss takes several forms: outright loss of areas used by wild species; degradation, for example, from vegetation removal and erosion, which deprive native species of food, shelter, and breeding areas; and fragmentation, when native species are squeezed onto small patches of undisturbed land surrounded by areas cleared for agriculture and other purposes.
14852 land-based activity
14853 physical alteration Any change in a body or substance that does not involve an alteration in its chemical composition.
14854 sectoral assessment
14856 information infrastructure The basic, underlying framework and features of a communications system supporting the exchange of knowledge, including hardware, software and transmission media.
14857 geo-referenced information Data delimiting a given object, either physical or conceptual, in terms of its spatial relationship to the land, usually consisting of points, lines, areas or volumes defined in terms of some coordinate system.
14858 data centre An organization established primarily to acquire, analyze, process, store, retrieve, and disseminate one or more types of data.
14859 internet service provider A business or organization that supplies connections to a part of the Internet, often through telephone lines.
1486 closing down The cessation, discontinuation or breaking-off of a business transaction, lease, contract or employment arrangement, usually before its anticipated or stipulated end.
14860 electronic information network A system of interrelated computer and telecommunications devices linked to permit the exchange of data in digital or analog signals.
14861 wide area network A system of interrelated computer and telecommunications devices linking two or more computers separated by a great distance for the exchange of electronic data.
14862 Internet A global consortium of local computer networks that uses the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) protocol to connect machines to each other, providing access to the World Wide Web, Gopher, electronic mail, remote login and file transfer.
14863 World Wide Web A graphical, interactive, hypertext information system that is cross-platform and can be run locally or over the global Internet. The Web consists of Web servers offering pages of information to Web browsers who view and interact with the pages. Pages can contain formatted text, background colors, graphics, as well as audio and video clips. Simple links in a Web page can cause the browser to jump to a different part of the same page or to a page on a Web server halfway around the world. Web pages can be used to send mail, read news, and download files. A Web address is called a URL.
14864 homepage The preset document that is displayed after starting a World Wide Web browser, or the main World Wide Web document in a series of related documents.
14865 hypertext The organization of information units typically containing visible links that users can select or click with a mouse pointer or some other computer device to automatically retrieve or display other documents.
14866 bulletin board system An assemblage of computer hardware and software that can be linked by computer modem dialing for the purpose of sharing or exchanging messages or other files.
14867 newsgroup A discussion group on a specific topic maintained on a computer network, frequently on the Internet.
14868 electronic mail Information or computer stored messages that are transmitted or exchanged from one computer terminal to another, through telecommunication.
14869 multimedia technology Any technical means used to combine text, sound, still or animated images and video in computers and electronic products, often allowing audience interactivity.
1487 closing down of firm The termination or shutdown, temporary or permanent, of a corporation, factory or some other business organization.
14870 audio-visual presentation An exhibition, performance, demonstration or lecture utilizing communication media directed at both the sense of sight and the sense of hearing.
14871 information kit A set or collection of materials compiled to convey knowledge on some subject and usually placed in some type of container.
14872 exhibit A display of an object or collection of objects for general dissemination of information, aesthetic value or entertainment.
14873 newsletter A printed periodical bulletin circulated to members of a group.
14874 radio programme A performance or production transmitted in sound signals with electromagnetic waves.
14875 television programme A performance or production transmitted in audiovisual signals with electromagnetic waves.
14876 public relations The methods and activities employed by an individual, organization, corporation, or government to promote a favourable relationship with the public.
14878 bibliographic information system A coordinated assemblage of people, devices or other resources organized for the exchange of data pertaining to the history, physical description, comparison, and classification of books and other works.
14879 bibliographic information Data pertaining to the history, physical description, comparison, and classification of books and other works.
14880 referral information system A coordinated assemblage of people, devices or other resources organized to provide directions leading people to sources known to provide knowledge or assistance on a specified topic or request.
14881 referral information Directions leading someone to another source that is known to provide knowledge or assistance on the specified topic or request.
14882 statistical information system A coordinated assemblage of people, devices or other resources enabling the exchange of numerical data that has been collected, classified or interpreted for analysis.
14883 statistical information Knowledge pertaining to the collection, classification, analysis and interpretation of numerical data.
14884 library service The duties of an establishment, or a public institution, charged with the care and organizing of a collection of printed and other materials, and the duty of interpreting such materials to meet the informational, cultural, educational, recreational or research needs of its clients.
14885 reference service The provision of aid by library staff trained to interpret library materials and library organizational structures to meet the informational, educational, cultural, recreational or research needs of the library's clients.
14886 indexing of documentation A service which creates a special contents list, containing titles, authors, abstracts, subject headings and other information, to describe a large number of publications and to be used in searchable, machine-readable (or printed) look-up tables.
14887 document lending The service provided by a library in which the library's clients are temporarily allowed to use books and other printed materials outside the library.
14888 inter-library loan The service provided by one library in which a second library's clients are temporarily allowed to use books and other printed materials belonging to the first library; and consequently the system providing rules and infrastructure for this service to a group of libraries.
14889 selective dissemination of information A service provided by a library or other agency that periodically notifies users of new publications, report literature or other data sources in subjects in which the user has specified an interest.
1489 clothing Clothes considered as a group.
14890 CD-ROM search service The provision of special aid by library staff trained to query bibliographic or other information contained on an electronic storage medium, usually to meet the research needs of the library's clients.
14891 internet search service The provision of special aid by library staff trained to query bibliographic or other information contained on the Internet, a large distributed electronic system, usually to meet the research needs of the library's clients.
14892 information clearing-house A central institution or agency for the collection, maintenance, and distribution of materials or data compiled to convey knowledge on some subject.
14893 decision-support system A coordinated assemblage of people, devices or other resources that analyzes, typically, business data and presents it so that users can make business decisions more easily.
14894 software development
14896 information exchange A reciprocal transference of data between two or more parties for the purpose of enhancing knowledge of the participants.
14897 relational database A collection of digital information items organized as a set of formally described tables from which the information can be accessed or reassembled in different ways without reorganizing the tables.
14898 multispectral scanner A remote sensing term referring to a scanning radiometer that simultaneously acquires images in various wavebands at the same time. A multispectral scanner can be carried aboard an aircraft or satellite. The Landsat multispectral scanner records images in four wavebands of visible and near infrared electromagnetic radiation to enable objects with different reflectance properties to be distinguished.
14899 resolution (parameter) A remote sensing term which has three separate applications: a) spatial resolution, which refers to the ability of a sensor to distinguish between objects that are spatially close to each other. It is a measure of the smallest angular or linear separation between two objects. b) Spectral resolution which refers to the ability of a sensor to distinguish between objects which are spectrally similar. It is a measure of both the discreteness of wavebands and the sensitivity of the sensor to distinguish between electromagnetic radiation intensity levels. c) Thermal resolution which refers to the ability of a sensor to distinguish between objects with a similar temperature.
1490 clothing industry
14900 pixel A contraction of the words 'picture element'. The smallest unit of information in an image or raster map. Referred to as a resolution cell in an image or grid.
14901 spectral band Closely grouped bands of lines characteristic of molecular gases of chemical compounds (spectroscopy).
14902 scene identification A numeric string which uniquely identifies an image component of a geographical information system database.
14903 image processing digital system A coordinated assemblage of computer devices designed to capture and manipulate pictures stored as data in discrete, quantized units or digits.
14904 digital image processing technique Techniques employed in the calibration of image data, the correction or reduction of errors occurring during capture or transmission of the data and in various types of image enhancement-operations which increase the ability of the analyst to recognize features of interest.
14905 pattern recognition A remote sensing term referring to an automated process through which unidentified patterns can be classified into a limited number of discrete classes through comparison with other class-defining patterns or characteristics. Pattern recognition is an essential part of the classification of remotely sensed images and is used as an aid to image interpretation.
14906 mosaic A composite photograph consisting of separate aerial photographs of overlapping surface areas, producing an overall image of a surface area too large to be depicted in a single aerial photograph.
14907 image filtering A remote sensing term related to image enhancement that refers to the removal of a spatial component of electromagnetic radiation.
14908 image enhancement In remote sensing, the filtering of data and other processes to manipulate pixels to produce an image that accentuates features of interest or visual interpretation.
14909 geometric correction A remote sensing term referring to the adjustment of an image for geometric errors.
1491 cloud Suspensions of minute water droplets or ice crystals produced by the condensation of water vapour.
14910 image registration The process of linking map coordinates to control points with known earth-surface coordinates. Related term: coordinate systems.
14911 image classification Processing techniques which apply quantitative methods to the values in a digital yield or remotely sensed scene to group pixels with similar digital number values into feature classes or categories.
14912 supervised image classification A graphical representation processing technique by which an analyst selects groups of pixels, determines their spectral response signature and trains a computer system to recognize pixels based on this spectral response pattern.
14913 unsupervised image classification Unsupervised classification is a kind of classification which takes place with minimum input from the operator; no training sample is available and subdivision of the feature space is achieved by identifying natural groupings of the measurement vectors.
14914 colour composition A remote-sensing term referring to the process of assigning different colours to different spectral bands. The colour picture formed by this process is called a "colour composite" (a colour image produced through optical combination of multiband images by projection through filters) and is produced by assigning a colour to an image of the Earth's surface recorded in a particular waveband. For a Landsat colour composite, the green waveband is coloured blue, the red waveband is coloured green and the infrared waveband is coloured red. This produces an image closely approximating a false colour photograph. Colour composite images are easier to interpret than separate images recording different wavebands. US national experimental crop inventories are based upon visual interpretation of Landsat colour composites.
14915 atmospheric correction The removal from the remotely sensed data of the atmospheric effects caused by the scattering and absorption of sunlight by particles; the removal of these effects improves not only the quality of the observed earth surface imaging but also the accuracy of classification of the ground objects.
14916 GIS digital system An organized collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data, and personnel designed to efficiently capture, store, update, manipulate, analyze, and display all forms of geographically referenced information that can be drawn from different sources, both statistical and mapped.
14917 GIS digital format The digital form of data collected by remote sensing.
14918 vector One of the two major types of internal data organization used in GIS. Vector systems are based primarily on coordinate geometry and take advantage of the convenient division of spatial data into point, line, and polygon types. Vector structures are especially suited to storing definitions of spatial objects for which sharp boundaries exist or can be imposed.
14919 point A position on a reference system determined by a survey.
14920 line Term used in GIS technologies in the vector type of internal data organization: spatial data are divided into point, line and polygon types. In most cases, point entities (nodes) are specified directly as coordinate pairs, with lines (arcs or edges) represented as chains of points. Regions are similarly defined in terms of the lines which form their boundaries. Some vector GIS store information in the form of points, line segments and point pairs; others maintain closed lists of points defining polygon regions. Vector structures are especially suited to storing definitions of spatial objects for which sharp boundaries exist or can be imposed.
14921 polygon In the vector type of GIS internal data organization spatial data are conveniently divided into point, line and polygon types. Some vector GIS store information in the form of points, line segments and point pairs; others maintain close lists of points defining polygon regions.
14922 raster One of the two major types of internal data organization used in GIS. Raster systems superimpose a regular grid over the area of interest and associate each cell-or pixel, to use the image term- with one or more data records. The values associated with each grid cell may represent either real values or any scalar or nominal data values associated with the cell coordinates. Among the strengths of the raster method is its ability to accept data directly from remote sensing systems and to represent transitional information. Raster systems tend to be relatively storage-intensive and this imposes practical limits on the area of coverage, the resolution, or both of these. Capacity constraints are, however, becoming less significant as computer memory and storage become more powerful and as data compression techniques become more readily available.
14923 attribute A distinctive feature of an object. In mapping and GIS applications, the objects are points, lines, or polygons that represent features such as sampling locations, section corners (points); roads and streams (lines); lakes, forest and soil types (polygons). These attributes can be further divided into classes such as tree species Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine) for forest types and paved and gravel for road types. Multiple attributes are generally associated with objects that are located on a single map layer.
14924 GIS digital technique The transformation to digital form of data collected by remote sensing, traditional field and documentary methods and of existing historical data such as paper maps, charts, and publications.
14925 interpolation A process used to estimate an intermediate value of one (dependent) variable which is a function of a second (independent) variable when values of the dependent variable corresponding to several discrete values of the independent variable are known.
14926 gridding A system of uniformly spaced perpendicular lines and horizontal lines running north and south, and east and west on a map, chart, or aerial photograph; used in locating points.
14927 raster to vector Methods to convert remotely sensed raster data to vector format. A number of raster-to-vector and vector-to-raster conversion procedures have been developed and introduced to current releases of many GIS packages.
14928 vector to raster Methods to convert remotely sensed raster data to vector format. A number of vector-to-raster and raster-to-vector conversion procedures have been developed and introduced to current releases of many GIS packages.
14930 national boundary The line demarcating recognized limits of established political units.
14931 sub-national boundary The line demarcating a territory located within the limits of a State.
14932 administrative boundary A limit or border of a geographic area under the jurisdiction of some governmental or managerial entity.
14933 geo-referenced data
14934 geographical projection A representation of the globe constructed on a plane with lines representative of and corresponding to the meridians and parallels of the curved surface of the earth.
14935 co-ordinate system A reference system used to measure horizontal and vertical distances on a planimetric map. A coordinate system is usually defined by a map projection, a spheroid of reference, a datum, one or more standard parallels, a central meridian, and possible shifts in the x- and y-directions to locate x, y positions of point, line, and area features. A common coordinate system is used to spatially register geographic data for the same area.
14936 latitude An angular distance in degrees north or south of the equator (latitude 0°), equal to the angle subtended at the centre of the globe by the meridian between the equator and the point in question.
14937 longitude Distance in degrees east or west of the prime meridian at 0° measured by the angle between the plane of the prime meridian and that of the meridian through the point in question, or by the corresponding time difference.
14938 remote sensing centre Centre where remote sensing data are stored, handled and analyzed.
14939 GIS laboratory A laboratory where GIS data drawn from different sources are stored, handled, analyzed and updated.
14940 on-line service Service providing an active connection with a communications network.
14947 underground dump Any subterranean or below-ground site in which solid, or other, waste is deposited without environmental controls.
14949 business economics The art of purchasing and selling goods from an economics perspective or a perspective involving the scientific study of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
14950 deterrence Punishment aiming at deterring the criminal from repeating his offences or deterring others from committing similar acts.
14951 old hazardous site Abandoned or disused dumps and refuse tips, stockpiles and landfill sites, disused petrol service stations, closed-down coking plants and former industrial and commercial premises, etc., from which considerable risks not only to the soil and to the groundwater, but also to humans and nature, can arise.
14955 outer space (allocation plan) Area out of closed settlements or building. area out of closed settlements or building
14956 deep sea mining The most valuable of the marine mineral resources is petroleum. About 15% of the world's oil is produced offshore, and extraction capabilities are advancing. One of the largest environmental impacts of deep sea mining are discharged sediment plumes which disperse with ocean currents and thus may negatively influence the marine ecosystem. Coal deposits known as extensions of land deposits , are mined under the sea floor in Japan and England.
14957 semi-liquid manure
14959 electrical goods industry Economic activity for manufacturing electric material and devices.
14960 services providing company
14962 restoration of water Any treatment process in which contaminated water is cleansed or corrected, particularly by use of a pump-and-treat approach.
14963 local heat supply The provision of heating fuel, coal or other heating source materials, or the amount of heating capacity, for the use of a specific local community.
14964 forwarding agent A person or business that specializes in the shipment and receiving of goods.
14965 waste avoidance All measures by which production and consumption processes are caused to generate less (or no waste), or to generate only those wastes that can be treated without causing problems.
14966 natural independence law The inviolable, moral claim of non-human organisms and their habitats to exist unharmed or unchanged by human activity as postulated by certain environmental ethicists.
14967 offence against the environment Unlawful acts against the environment, such as water contamination, hazardous waste disposal, air contamination, unpermitted installation of plants, oil spills, etc.
14968 provincial/regional law (D)
14970 provincial/regional authority (D) The power of a government agency or its administrators to administer and implement laws and government policies applicable to a specific political subdivision or geographical area within the state.
14971 international transaction Any agreement or act involving two or more countries in which business dealings, negotiations or other affairs are settled or concluded.
14972 road setting The establishing of boulevards, turnpikes, highways and other routes on land.
14973 air quality monitoring Regular checking and recording of air quality in a given area. The following pollutants must be considered: carbon monoxide, benzene, butadiene, lead, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulates.
14974 citizen initiative
14975 area under stress Areas that are flooded by rising number of tourists or other kinds of pressure and suffer from insufficient or inappropriate planning and management. Damage frequently arises from a lack of understanding or interest of the value of such sites.
14976 storage (process) A series of actions undertaken to deposit or hold goods, materials or waste in some physical location, as in a facility, container, tank or dumping site. general term used for energy, heat, pollutants, also within the meaning of accumulation
14982 mountain refuge Any shelter or protection from distress or danger located in a predominantly mountainous area.
14983 space research Research involving studies of all aspects of environmental conditions beyond the atmosphere of the earth.
14985 red list The series of publications produced by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). They provide an inventory on the threat to rare plants and animal species. Information includes status, geographical distribution, population size, habitat and breeding rate. The books also contain the conservation measures, if any, that have been taken to protect the species. There are five categories of rarity status: endangered species; vulnerable organisms, which are those unlikely to adapt to major environmental effects; rare organisms, which are those at risk because there are few of them in the world, such as plants which only grow on mountain peaks or on islands; out of danger species, which were formerly in the above categories, but have had the threat removed because of conservation actions; and indeterminate species, which are the plants and animals probably at risk, although not enough is known about them to assess their status.
1499 coagulation A separation or precipitation from a dispersed state of suspensoid particles resulting from their growth; may result from prolonged heating, addition of an electrolyte, or from a condensation reaction between solute and solvent.
1500 coal The natural, rocklike, brown to black derivative of forest-type plant material, usually accumulated in peat beds and progressively compressed and indurated until it is finally altered in to graphite-like material.
1502 coal-based energy Power generated by the steam raised by burning coal in fire-tube or water-tube boilers.
15020 insulating material Material that prevents or reduces the transmission of electricity, heat, or sound to or from a body, device or region.
15027 decantation Sizing or classifying particulate matter by suspension in a fluid (liquid or gas), the larger particulates tending to separate by sinking.
15028 wood resource
15029 fishing fleet
1503 coal-fired power plant Power plant which is fuelled by coal.
15030 emission to air
15031 air quality impact
15032 climate change mitigation
15033 climate change adaptation process of preparing to cope with living in a changing climate, e.g. increased rainfall, higher temperatures, scarce water, or more frequent storms
15034 alternative fuel
15036 material flow
15038 non-mineral waste
15039 waste prevention
15040 other waste
1505 coal gasification Process of conversion of coal to a gaseous product which is used as fuel in electric power stations.
1506 coal liquefaction The process of preparing a liquid mixture of hydrocarbons by destructive distillation of coal.
1507 coal mining The technical and mechanical job of removing coal from the earth and preparing it for market.
1509 coal refining The processing of coal to remove impurities.
151 aerodynamic noise Acoustic noise caused by turbulent airflow over the surface of a body.
1511 coal technology The processing of coal to make gaseous and liquid fuels.
1512 coast A line or zone where the land meets the sea or some other large expanse of water.
1513 coastal area The areas of land and sea bordering the shoreline and extending seaward through the breaker zone.
1515 coastal development Concentration of human settlements, infrastructures and economical activities along the coasts, being these areas very favourable for trade, communication and marine resources exploitation; the impact of the accelerated population growth and of the industrial and touristic development in these areas has caused the disruption of the ecological integrity of the coastal zones.
1516 coastal ecosystem Marine environments bounded by the coastal land margin (seashore) and the continental shelf 100-200 m below sea level. Ecologically, the coastal and nearshore zones grade from shallow water depths, influenced by the adjacent landmass and input from coastal rivers and estuaries, to the continental shelf break, where oceanic processes predominate. Among the unique marine ecosystems associated with coastal and nearshore waterbodies are seaweed-dominated communities, coral reefs and upwellings.
1517 coastal environment The areas where the land masses meet the seas. Coastal environments include tidal wetlands, estuaries, bays, shallow near-shore waters, mangrove swamps, and in-shore reef systems. The critical habitats of these zones are: feeding, breeding, nursery, and resting areas. Coastal areas throughout the world are under enormous environmental stress, which is caused by a wide range of factors, including pollution and the destruction and deterioration of marine habitats.
1519 coastal erosion The gradual wearing away of material from a coast by the action of sea water.
1520 coastal fishing Fishing in an area of the sea next to the shoreline.
1523 coastal pollution The presence, release or introduction of polluting substances in or onto the seashore or the land near it.
1526 coastal water Coastal waters are typically characterized by a shallow continental shelf, gently sloping seaward to a continental slope, which drops relatively abruptly to the deep ocean. The proximity of coastal water to land also influences the water circulation. In the vicinity of freshwater inflows, the nearshore circulation is altered by the presence of density-driven motions. Coastal waters are under enormous environmental stress, caused by a wide range of factors including pollution and the destruction and deterioration of marine habitats.
1527 coastal zone planning The objective of coastal management and planning is the preservation of coastal resources whilst simultaneously satisfying the sometimes conflicting interests and requirements of protection, development, usage and conservation.
1528 coastguard A maritime force which aids shipping, saves lives at sea, prevents smuggling, etc. It also responds to emergencies involving oil spills and other discharges at sea and takes the lead in enforcing the law, including assessing penalties for environmental violations.
1530 coating A material applied onto or impregnated into a substrate for protective, decorative, or functional purposes. Such materials include, but are not limited to, paints, varnishes, sealers, adhesives, thinners, diluents, and inks.
1532 cobalt A metallic element used chiefly in alloys.
1533 cockroach The most primitive of the living winged insects. It is thought they have been unchanged for more than 300 million years, and are among the oldest fossil insects. Cockroaches are usually found in tropical climates, but a few species, out of the total 3.500 known species, have become pests. They are common household pests in many countries, imported by ship and carried home in grocery bags. Cockroaches eat plant and animal products, including food, paper, clothing and soiled hospital waste, fouling everything they touch with their droppings and unpleasant odour, to which many people are allergic. They are a major health hazard and carry harmful bacteria, protozoan parasites and faunal pathogens, including those that cause typhoid, leprosy and salmonella. Conventional insecticides make little or no impact on the cockroaches population.
1536 chemical oxygen demand The quantity of oxygen used in biological and non-biological oxidation of materials in water; a measure of water quality.
1541 code of practice A systematic collection of procedures outlining the established method of application of all relevant laws, rules or regulations to a specific endeavor.
1542 code A systematic collection, compendium or revision of laws, rules, or regulations. A private or official compilation of all permanent laws in force consolidated and classified according to subject matter. Many states have published official codes of all laws in force, including the common law and statutes as judicially interpreted, which have been compiled by code commissions and enacted by the legislatures.
1548 coelenterate Animals that have a single body cavity (the coelenteron). The name was formerly given to a phylum comprising the Cnidaria and Ctenophora, but these are now regarded as phyla in their own right, and the name Coelenterata has fallen from use, although it is sometimes used as a synonym for Cnidaria.
1550 cogeneration Usually the generation of heat in the form of steam, and the generation of power in the form of electricity. Combined heat and power plants are able to convert a much higher proportion of the energy in fuel into final output. The steam produced may be used through heat exchangers in a district heating scheme, while the electricity provides lighting and power.
1553 co-incineration Joint incineration of hazardous waste, in any form, with refuse and/or sludge.
1554 coke A coherent, cellular, solid residue remaining from the dry distillation of a coking coal or of pitch, petroleum, petroleum residue, or other carbonaceous materials; contains carbon as its principal constituent.
1556 cold
1559 cold zone ecosystem The interacting system of a biological community and its non-living environmental surroundings located in climatic regions where the air temperature is below 10° Celsius for eight to eleven months of the year.
1561 coliform bacterium A group of bacteria that are normally abundant in the intestinal tracts of human and other warm-blooded animals and are used as indicators (being measured as the number of individuals found per millilitre of water) when testing the sanitary quality of water.
1567 colloid An intimate mixture of two substances, one of which, called the dispersed phase, is uniformly distributed in a finely divided state through the second substance, called the dispersion medium.
1568 colloidal state A system of particles in a dispersion medium, with properties distinct from those of a true solution because of the larger size of the particles. The presence of these particles can often be detected by means of the ultramicroscope.
1569 colonisation The successful invasion of a new habitat by a species.
157 aerosol A gaseous suspension of ultramicroscopic particles of a liquid or a solid.
1570 colourimetry Any technique by which an unknown colour is evaluated in terms of standard colours; the technique may be visual, photoelectric or indirect by means of spectrophotometry.
1571 colour An attribute of things that results from the light they reflect, transmit, or emit in so far as this light causes a visual sensation that depends on its wavelengths.
1574 combination effect A combined effect of two or more substances or organisms which is greater than the sum of the individual effect of each.
1575 combined cycle-power station This type of plant is flexible in response and can be built in the 100-600 MW capacity range. It produces electrical power from both a gas turbine (ca. 1300°C gas inlet temperature), fuelled by natural gas or oil plus a steam turbine supplied with the steam generated by the 500°C exhaust gases from the gas turbine. The thermal efficiency of these stations is ca. 50 per cent compared with a maximum of 40 per cent from steam turbine coal fired power stations. This type of plant can be built in two years compared with six years for a coal-fired station and 10-15 years for nuclear.
1576 combined waste water A mixture of domestic or industrial wastewater and surface runoff.
1578 combustibility The property of a substance of being capable of igniting and burning.
1582 combustion engine An engine that operates by the energy of combustion of a fuel.
1583 combustion gas The exhaust gas from a combustion process. It may contain nitrogen oxides, carbon oxides, water vapour, sulfur oxides, particles and many chemical pollutants.
1584 combustion residue A residual layer of ash on the heat-exchange surfaces of a combustion chamber, resulting from the burning of fuel.
1588 commercialisation Holding or displaying for sale, offering for sale, selling, delivering or placing on the market in any other form.
1590 commercial law The whole body of substantive jurisprudence applicable to the rights, intercourse and relations of persons engaged in commerce, trade or mercantile pursuits.
1591 commercial noise Noise emitted from commercial activities.
1594 commercial traffic The operations and movements related to the transportation and exchange of goods.
1595 commercial vehicle Vehicle designed and equipped for the transportation of goods.
1596 trade waste All types of waste generated by offices, restaurants, shops, warehouses and other such non-manufacturing sources, and non-processing waste generated at manufacturing facilities such as office and packaging waste.
1600 common agricultural policy The set of regulations and practices adopted by member countries of the European Community that consolidates efforts in promoting or ensuring reasonable pricing, fair standards of living, stable markets, increased farm productivity and methods for dealing with food supply or surplus.
1601 common agreement A system of law established by following earlier judicial decisions and customs, rather than statutory or legislatively enacted law.
1605 communications The concept, science, technique and process of transmitting, receiving or otherwise exchanging information and data.
1613 ecological community 1) All of the plants and animals in an area or volume; a complex association usually containing both animals and plants. 2) Any naturally occurring group of organisms that occupy a common environment.
1616 Community law The law of European Community (as opposed to the national laws of the member states.) It consists of the treaties establishing the EC (together with subsequent amending treaties) community legislation, and decisions of the court of justice of the European Communities. Any provision of the treaties or of community legislation that is directly applicable or directly effective in a member state forms part of the law of that state and prevails over its national law in the event of any inconsistency between the two.
1618 community participation Involvement in public or private actions, as members or as a member of a particular ethnic, political or social group, with the purpose of exerting influence.
1619 community-pays principle A tenet of environmental policy, according to which the costs of ecological challenges, environmental quality improvements and the removal of environmental hazards are allotted to community groups or local corporations and, thereby, to the general public.
1622 commuter traffic Traffic caused by people travelling regularly over some distance, as between a suburb and a city and back, between their place of residence and their place of work.
1623 commuting
1625 compaction Reduction of the bulk of solid waste by rolling and tamping.
1628 company policy Official guidelines or set of guidelines adopted by a company for the management of its activity.
163 aesthetics Considerations, values, and judgements pertaining to the quality of the human perceptual experience (including sight, sound, smell, touch, taste, and movement) evoked by phenomena or components of the environment.
1630 comparative law The study of the principles of legal science by the comparison of various systems of law.
1631 comparative test Tests conducted to determine whether one procedure is better than another.
1632 comparison The placing together or juxtaposing of two or more items to ascertain, bring into relief, or establish their similarities and dissimilarities.
1633 compensation Equivalent in money for a loss sustained; equivalent given for property taken or for an injury done to another; recompense or reward for some loss, injury or service.
1636 compensatory measure Any administrative or legislative action, procedure or enactment designed to redress disruptions of ecological integrity or damage to the supply of natural resources.
1637 compensatory tax Compulsory charge levied by a government for the purpose of redressing or countervailing economic disparity.
1638 competition (biological) The simultaneous demand by two or more organisms or species for an essential common resource that is actually or potentially in limited supply.
1639 economic competition The market condition where an individual or firm that wants to buy or sell a commodity or service has a choice of possible suppliers or customers.
1641 competitiveness The ability of a firm to strive in the market with rivals in the production and sale of commodities or services and, analogously, the ability of a country to maintain a relatively high standard of living for its citizens through trade in international markets.
1645 complex formation Formation of a complex compound. Also known as complexing or complexation.
1646 complexing agent A substance capable of forming a complex compound with another material in solution.
1647 composite pollution Emissions of ozone-degrading gases (CFCs, halons); emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, CFCs, nitrous oxides, halons); emissions of acidifying gases (sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides); emissions of substances that contribute to eutrophication (phosphate and nitrogen-containing materials); emissions of toxic materials (pesticides, radioactive substances, priority toxic substances); solid wastes returned to the environment.
1649 compost A mixture of decaying organic matter used to fertilize and condition the soil.
1651 compostable waste Waste consisting largely of biodegradable organic matter.
1652 composting The natural biological decomposition of organic material in the presence of air to form a humus-like material. Controlled methods of composting include mechanical mixing and aerating, ventilating the materials by dropping them through a vertical series of aerated chambers, or placing the compost in piles out in the open air and mixing it or turning it periodically.
1653 composting by producer
1659 compression Reduction in the volume of a substance due to pressure.
1660 compressor A mechanical device a) to provide the desired pressure for chemical and physical reactions, b) to control boiling points of fluids, as in gas separation, refrigeration, and evaporation, c) to evacuate enclosed volumes, d) to transport gases or vapors, e) to store compressible fluids as gases or liquids under pressure and assist in recovering them from storage or tank cars, and f) to convert mechanical energy to fluid energy for operating instruments, air agitation, fluidization, solid transport, blowcases, air tools, and motors.
1663 compulsory use
1669 European Communities The collective body that resulted in 1967 from the merger of the administrative networks of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), and the European Economic Community (EEC). The singular term has also been widely used.
167 afforestation 1) Establishment of a new forest by seeding or planting of nonforested land. 2) The planting of trees on land which was previously used for other uses than forestry. 3) The planting of trees in an area, or the management of an area to allow trees to regenerate or colonize naturally, in order to produce a forest.
1673 concentration (value) In solutions, the mass, volume, or number of moles of solute present in proportion to the amount of solvent or total solution.
1674 concentration (process) The process of increasing the quantity of a component in a solution. The opposite of dilution.
1677 concrete A mixture of aggregate, water, and a binder, usually Portland cement; it hardens to stonelike condition when dry.
1679 concrete products industry
1681 condensation (process) Transformation from a gas to a liquid.
1686 conductivity The ratio of the electric current density to the electric field in a material. Also known as electrical conductivity.
1688 conflicting use
1689 conflict of aims
1690 conflict of interests Clash between public interest and the private pecuniary interest of the individual concerned. A situation in which regard for one duty tends to lead to disregard of another.
1691 congress A formal meeting, often consisting of representatives of various organizations, that is assembled to promote, discuss or make arrangements regarding a particular subject or some matter of common interest.
1692 conifer An order of conebearing plants which includes nearly all the present day Gymnospermae. Most are tall evergreen trees with needle-like (e.g., pines), linear (e.g. firs) or scale-like (e.g., cedars) leaves. They are characteristic of temperate zones and the main forest trees of colder regions. They provide timber, resins, tars, turpentine and pulp for paper.
1694 coniferous forest A forest type characterized by cone-bearing, needle-leaved trees. They are generally, but not necessarily, evergreen and relatively shallow-rooted. Since they grow more rapidly than most broad-leaved trees, conifers are extensively planted as a source of softwood timber and pulp. They are tolerant of wide-ranging climatic conditions, of many different types of soil and of considerable differences in terrain. Thus, they are found from the polar latitudes to the tropics, on most types of soils (especially, thin acid soils) and from mountain summits to coastal environments.
170 Africa The second largest of the continents, on the Mediterranean in the north, the Atlantic in the west, and the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Indian Ocean in the east. The Sahara desert divides the continent unequally into North Africa and Africa south of Sahara. The largest lake is Lake Victoria and the chief rivers are the Nile, Niger, Congo, and Zambezi. The hottest continent, Africa has vast mineral resources, many of which are still undeveloped.
1700 conservation
1704 freshwater conservation Controlled utilization, protection or improvement of a natural body of water that does not contain significant amounts of dissolved salts and minerals, such as a lake or river.
1706 conservation of genetic resources Controlled utilization, protection and development of the gene pool of natural and cultivated organisms to ensure variety and variability and for current and potential value to human welfare.
1708 conservation of monuments Measures adopted for the protection and the maintenance of hystorical and art monuments.
171 afterburning An afterburner is a gadget fitted to the exhaust flues of furnaces and also to the exhaust systems of motor vehicles. They remove polluting gases and particles, which are the result of incompletely combusted fuel, by incineration and break down other chemical molecules associated with combustion into inert chemicals.
1712 constitutional law That branch of the public law of a nation or state which treats of the organization, powers and frame of government, the distribution of political and governmental authorities and functions, the fundamental principles which are to regulate the relations of government and citizen and which prescribes generally the plan and method according to which the public affairs of the nation or state are to be administered.
1718 construction equipment Heavy power machines which perform specific construction or demolition functions.
1724 construction noise Noise resulting from construction activities such as site preparation, site clearance, demolition of existing buildings, piling, concreting, erection of structures, etc.
1725 construction of installations
1728 construction technology
173 age The period of time that a person, animal or plant has lived or is expected to live.
1730 construction with recycled material Construction with waste product used as raw material.
1731 construction work The construction, rehabilitation, alteration, conversion, extension, demolition or repair of buildings, highways, or other changes or improvement to real property, including facilities providing utility services. The term also includes the supervision, inspection, and other on-site functions incidental to the actual construction.
1732 consultation Any meeting or inquiry of concerned persons or advisors for the purpose of deliberation, discussion or decision on some matter or action.
1736 consumer behaviour An observable pattern of activity concerned with the purchase of goods and services and susceptible to the influence of marketing and advertising strategies.
1737 consumer goods Manufactured products intended primarily for personal use by individuals or families and classified as either durables or non-durables, depending on length of use.
1738 consumer group A collection of persons united to address concerns regarding the purchase and use of specific commodities or services.
1739 consumer information Factual, circumstantial and, often, comparative knowledge concerning various goods, services or events, their quality and the entities producing them.
1740 consumer protection Information disseminated or measures and programs established to prevent and reduce damage, injury or loss to users of specific commodities and services.
1742 consumer waste Materials purchased, used and discarded by the buyer, or consumer, as opposed to those discarded in a manufacturing process.
1743 consumption Spending for survival or enjoyment in contrast to providing for future use or production.
1745 consumption pattern The combination of qualities, quantities, acts and tendencies characterizing a community or human group's use of resources for survival, comfort and enjoyment.
1746 container A large case that can be transported by truck and than easily loaded on a ship.
1748 containment (nuclear industry) The reinforced steel or concrete vessel that encloses a nuclear reactor. It is designed to withstand minor explosions in the core, to keep radionuclides from escaping into the environment, and to be safe against terrorist attack.
1751 contaminated soil Soil which because of its previous or current use has substances under, on or in it which, depending upon their concentration and/or quantity, may represent a direct potential or indirect hazard to man or to the environment.
1752 contamination Introduction into or onto water, air, soil or other media of microorganisms, chemicals, toxic substances, wastes, wastewater or other pollutants in a concentration that makes the medium unfit for its next intended use.
1757 continental shelf The gently sloping seabed of the shallow water nearest to a continent, covering about 45 miles from the shore and deepening over the sloping sea floor to an average depth of 400 ft. It continues until it reaches the continental slope. The continental shelf contains most of the important fishing grounds and a range of resources, including gas and oil, sand and gravel. However, the shelf is, in general, a structural extension of the continent, and so may also be a source of minerals found in that region, such as tin, gold and platinum.
1759 continuous load The amount or quantity of polluting material found in a transporting agent that flows at a steady rate, in contrast to a sudden or dramatic influx.
1761 contour farming The performing of cultivations along lines connecting points of equal elevation so reducing the loss of top soil by erosion, increasing the capacity of the soil to retain water and reducing the pollution of water by soil.
1762 contract An agreement between two or more persons which creates an obligation to do or not to do a particular thing. Its essential are competent parties, subject matter, a legal consideration, mutuality of agreement, and mutuality of obligation.
1763 contract cleaner A commercial service provider, usually bound by a written agreement, responsible for the removal of dirt, litter or other unsightly materials from any property.
1769 controlled burning The planned use of carefully controlled fire to accomplish predetermined management goals. The burn is set under a combination of weather, fuel moisture, soil moisture, and fuel arrangement conditions that allow the management objectives to be attained, and yet confine the fire to the planned area.
1772 controlled hunting zone An administered geographic area in which the pursuit, capture and killing of wild animals for food or sport, is allowed, often with certain restrictions or regulations.
1773 controlling authority The power of a person or an organized assemblage of persons to manage, direct, superintend, restrict, regulate, govern, administer or oversee.
1774 control measure
1775 conurbation 1) A large densely populated urban sprawl formed by the growth and coalescence of individual towns or cities. 2) Large area covered with buildings (houses or factories or public building, etc.) 3) A large area occupied by urban development, which may contain isolated rural areas, and formed by the merging together of expanding towns that formerly were separate.
1776 convention International agreement on a specific topic.
1777 conventional energy Power provided by traditional means such as coal, wood, gas, etc., as opposed to alternative energy sources such as solar power, tidal power, wind power, etc.
1781 cooling Setting aside a highly radioactive material until the radioactivity has diminished to a desired level.
1782 cooling oil Oil used as a cooling agent, either with forced circulation or with natural circulation.
1784 cooling tower A device that aids in heat removal from water used as a coolant in electric power generating plants.
1786 cooling water Water used to make something less hot, such as the irradiated elements from a nuclear reactor or the engine of a machine.
1787 co-operation
1788 co-operation principle
1791 co-ordination
1792 copper A chemical element; one of the most important nonferrous metals; a ductile and malleable metal found in various ores and used in industry, engineering, and the arts in both pure and alloyed form.
1793 coppice A growth of small trees that are repeatedly cut down at short intervals; the new shoots are produced by the old stumps.
1794 coral The skeleton of certain solitary and colonial anthozoan coelenterates; composed chiefly of calcium carbonate.
1796 coral reef Coral reefs have been built up from the skeletons of reef-building coral a small primitive marine animal, and other marine animals and algae over thousands of years. They occur in clear, shallow and sunlit seas. Coral reefs are one of the most productive and diverse ecosystems and are estimated to yield about 12% of the world's fish catch. They are very vulnerable to any change in their environment, especially pollution, because it makes the water opaque. They must have light in order that photosyntesis by the algae can take place. Like trees, corals reflect the environmental conditions in which they grow, indicating marine pollution, sea-surface temperature and other aquatic conditions.
1798 chordate The highest phylum in the animal kingdom, characterized by a notochord, nerve cord, and gill slits; includes the urochordate, lancelets and vertebrates.
1799 core meltdown An accidental overheating of the part of the nuclear reactor where fission takes place, causing fuel elements and other parts of the reactor to melt, potentially leading to catastrophic consequences in which dangerous levels of radioactive materials would be released into the environment.
1800 cork The thick light porous outer bark of the cork oak, used widely as an insulator and for stoppers for bottles, casks, etc.
1807 corridor A physical linkage, connecting two areas of habitat and differing from the habitat on either side. Corridors are used by organisms to move around without having to leave the preferred habitat.
1808 corrosion A process in which a solid, especially a metal, is eaten away and changed by a chemical action.
1809 corrosion inhibitor A chemical agent which slows down or prohibits a corrosion reaction.
1813 cosmetic industry Industry for the production of substances for improving the appearance of the body.
1814 cosmic radiation Radiations consisting of atomic nuclei, especially protons, of very high energy that reach the earth from outer space. Some cosmic radiations are very energetic and are able to penetrate a mile or more into the Earth.
1817 cost-benefit Relation between costs of a certain activity and its benefits to a certain community.
1818 cost-benefit analysis The attempt to assess, compare and frequently justify the total price or loss represented by a certain activity or expenditure with the advantage or service it provides.
182 agreement (legal) The coming together in accord of two minds on a given proposition. In law, a concord of understanding and intention between two or more parties with respect to the effect upon their relative rights and duties, of certain past or future facts or performances. The consent of two or more persons concerning respecting the transmission of some property, right, or benefits, with the view of contracting an obligation, a mutual obligation.
1820 cost increase The augmentation or rise in the amount of money incurred or asked for in the exchange of goods and services.
1822 cost recovery basis A standard used to provide reimbursement to individuals or organizations for any incurred expense or provided service.
1823 cost reduction The lessening or lowering in the amount of money incurred or asked for in the exchange of goods and services.
1824 cost In economics, the value of the factors of production used by a firm in producing or distributing goods and services or engaging in both activities.
1825 pollution cost The amount of money incurred as a result of human-made or human-induced alteration of the physical, biological, chemical, and radiological integrity of air, water, and other media.
1826 national economic costs The amount of money incurred as a result of the financial management of a nation's financial resources.
1827 cotton The most economical natural fiber, obtained from plants of the genus Gossypium, used in making fabrics, cordage, and padding and for producing artificial fibers and cellulose.
183 agreement (contract) An agreement, convention, or promise of two or more parties, by deed in writing, signed, and delivered, by which either of the parties pledges himself to the other that something is either done, or shall be done, or shall not be done, or stipulates for the truth of certain facts.
1837 county An area comprising more than one city and whose boundaries have been designed according to some biological, political, administrative, economic, demographic criteria.
1842 court of justice A tribunal having jurisdiction of appeal and review, including the ability to overturn decisions of lower courts or courts of first instance.
1846 covering
185 agricultural biotechnology
1850 craft An occupation or trade requiring manual dexterity or skilled artistry.
1854 credit assistance The help and support from banks and other financial institutions in providing money or goods without requiring present payment.
186 agricultural building The buildings and adjacent service areas of a farm.
1860 criminality A violation of the law, punishable by the State in criminal proceedings.
1862 criminal law That body of the law that deals with conduct considered so harmful to society as a whole that it is prohibited by statute, prosecuted and punished by the government.
1864 critical level General term referring to the concentration limit beyond which a substance can cause dangerous effects to living organisms.
1865 critical load The maximum load that a given system can tolerate before failing.
1870 crocodile Any large tropical reptile of the family Crocodylidae: order Crocodylia. They have a broad head, tapering snout, massive jaws, and a thick outer covering of bony plates.
1874 crop protection The problem of crop protection has changed dramatically since 1945. There is now a whole arsenal of chemicals with which to combat agricultural pests and diseases, but this development has itself many drawbacks. Such sophisticated techniques are available only to a minority of farmers; in most parts of the world the standard of crop protection remains abysmally low. In addition, modern crop protection methods have been criticized for relying too heavily on chemical control. Biological controls, both natural and contrived, have been neglected. In some cases involving misuse of agricultural chemicals, crops must be protected from the very measures intended for their protection. Meanwhile previously localized pests and diseases continue to spread worldwide.
1875 crop rotation An agricultural technique in which, season after season, each field is sown with crop plants in a regular rotation, each crop being repeated at intervals of several years. Crop rotation minimizes the risks of depleting the soil of particular nutrients. In rotation systems, a grain crop is often grown the first year, followed by a leafy-vegetable crop in the second year, and a pasture crop in the third. The last usually contains legumes; such plants can restore nitrogen to the soil. Notwithstanding, high yields tend to depend upon the continued addition of chemical fertilizers to the soil.
1877 crop waste Any unusable portion of plant matter left in a field after harvest.
1880 crossing place A place, often shown by markings, lights, or poles, where a street, railway, etc. may be crossed.
1881 crossing place for animals Bridges and tunnels provided for animals for crossing roads and railways. Railway and road infrastructures represent an hindrance to wildlife migration.
1885 crude oil A comparatively volatile liquid bitumen composed principally of hydrocarbon, with traces of sulphur, nitrogen or oxygen compounds; can be removed from the earth in a liquid state.
1888 cruising Travelling by sea in a liner for pleasure, usually calling at a number of ports.
1889 crustacean A class of arthropod animals having jointed feet and mandibles, two pairs of antennae, and segmented, chitin-encased bodies.
1890 cryptogam A large group of plants, comprising the Thallophyta, Bryophyta and Pteridophyta, the last of which are cryptogams.
1891 crystallisation The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts.
1892 crystallography The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement.
1898 cultivated plant Plants specially bred or improved by cultivation.
1899 cultivation The practice of growing and nurturing plants outside of their wild habitat (i.e., in gardens, nurseries, arboreta).
1902 cultivation method Any procedure or approach used to prepare land or soil for the growth of new crops, or to promote or improve the growth of existing crops.
1909 cultural development The process whereby the capabilities or possibilities inherent in a people's beliefs, customs, artistic activity and knowledge are brought out or made more effective.
191 agricultural ecology
1911 cultural facility Any building or structure used for programs or activities involving the arts or other endeavors that encourage refinement or development of the mind.
1912 cultural heritage The inherited body of beliefs, customs, artistic activity and knowledge that has been transmitted by ancestors.
1915 cultural indicator Cultural indicators give information about societies, which may be interesting even when one is not trying to evaluate the cultures of these societies from any normative point of view. Cultural indicators may also have an evaluative purpose involving explicit or implicit normative criteria.
1917 cultural policy
1921 culture (society) The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits constituting a distinct complex of tradition of a racial or social group.
1926 curriculum The aggregate of courses of study provided in a particular school, college, university, adult education program, technical institution or some other educational program.
1928 custom and usage A group pattern of habitual activity usually transmitted across generations and, in some instances, having the force of law.
1929 customs Duties charged upon commodities on their importation into, or exportation out of, a country.
193 agricultural economics An applied social science that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of agricultural or farming goods and services.
1930 cutting (forestry) The act or process of felling or uprooting standing trees, in order to produce timber products.
1931 cyanate A salt or ester of cyanic acid containing the radical OCN.
1933 cyanide Any of a group of compounds containing the CN group and derived from hydrogen cyanide, HCN.
194 agricultural effluent Any solid, liquid or gas that enters the environment as a by-product of agricultural activities.
1941 cyclone A storm characterized by the converging and rising giratory movement of the wind around a zone of low pressure (the eye) towards which it is violently pulled from a zone of high pressure. Its circulation is counterclockwise round the center in the northern hemisphere, clockwise in the southern hemisphere.
1945 cytology A branch of the biological sciences which deals with the structure, behaviour, growth, and reproduction of cells and the functions and chemistry of cell components.
1946 cytotoxicity The degree to which an agent possesses a specific destructive action on certain cells or the possession of such action; used particularly in referring to the lysis of cells by immune phenomena and to antineoplastic drugs that selectively kill dividing cells.
195 agricultural engineering A discipline concerned with developing and improving the means for providing food and fiber for mankind's needs.
1950 dairy farm A commercial establishment for processing or selling milk and milk products.
1951 dairy industry Production of food made from milk or milk products.
1952 dairy product Products derived from milk, such as butter, cheese, lactose, etc.
1955 dam Structure constructed across a watercourse or stream channel.
1956 damage An injury or harm impairing the function or condition of a person or thing.
1958 damage from military manoeuvres Injury or harm resulting from the planned movement of armed forces or from the tactical exercises simulating war operations that is carried out for training and evaluation purposes.
1959 damage prevention The aggregate of approaches and measures to ensure that human action or natural phenomena do not cause damage. It implies the formulation and implementation of long-range policies and programmes to eliminate or prevent the damages caused by disasters.
1968 hazardous chemical export Transporting substances capable of producing adverse health effects, fires or explosions to other countries or areas for the conduct of foreign trade.
1969 dangerous goods Goods or products that are full of hazards or risks when used, transported, etc.
197 agricultural equipment Machines utilized for tillage, planting, cultivation, and harvesting of crops.
1970 dangerous goods law
1971 dangerous goods regulation Rules on the handling of articles or substances capable of posing a significant risk to health, safety, or property, and that ordinarily require special attention when being transported.
1974 data acquisition The act of collecting and gathering individual facts, statistics or other items of information.
1975 data analysis The evaluation of digital data, i.e. data represented by a sequence of code characters.
1979 data base A computerized compilation of data, facts and records that is organized for convenient access, management and updating.
1981 data carrier A medium on which data can be recorded, and which is usually easily transportable, such as cards, tape, paper, or disks.
1984 data exchange A reciprocal transfer of individual facts, statistics or items of information between two or more parties for the purpose of enhancing knowledge of the participants.
1986 data processing Any operation or combination of operations on data, including everything that happens to data from the time they are observed or collected to the time they are destroyed.
1988 data protection Policies, procedures or devices designed to maintain the integrity or security of informational elements in storage or in transmission.
1989 data recording technique The body of specialized procedures and methods used for the preservation, collocation or registration of individual elements of information.
199 agricultural exploitation
1992 dating Any of several techniques such as radioactive dating, dendrochronology, or varve dating, for establishing the age of rocks, palaeontological or archaeological specimens, etc.
1993 decay product An isotope formed by the radioactive decay of some other isotope. This newly formed isotope possesses physical and chemical properties that are different from those of its parent isotope, and may also be radioactive.
1996 DDT A persistent organochlorine insecticide, also known as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, that was introduced in the 1940s and used widely because of its persistence (meaning repeated applications were unnecessary), its low toxicity to mammals and its simplicity and cheapness of manufacture. It became dispersed all over the world and, with other organochlorines, had a disruptive effect on species high in food chains, especially on the breeding success of certain predatory birds. DDT is very stable, relatively insoluble in water, but highly soluble in fats. Health effects on humans are not clear, but it is less toxic than related compounds. It is poisonous to other vertebrates, especially fish, and is stored in the fatty tissue of animals as sublethal amounts of the less toxic DDE. Because of its effects on wildlife its use in most countries is now forbidden or strictly limited.
20 acceptable risk level Level of risk judged to be outweighed by corresponding benefits or one that is of such a degree that it is considered to pose minimal potential for adverse effects.
2000 debt Something owed to someone else.
2001 debt service The fees or amount of money necessary to pay interest on an outstanding debt, the principal of maturing serial bonds, and the required contributions to an amortization or sinking fund for term bonds.
2002 racking The mechanical dewatering of a wet solid by pouring off the liquid without disturbing the underlying sediment or precipitate.
2003 decentralisation Basic organizational leadership concept and process of shifting and delegating power and authority from a higher level to subordinate levels within the administrative/managerial hierarchy in order to promote independence, responsibility, and quicker decision-making in applying or interpreting policies and procedures to the needs of these levels.
2004 deciduous forest The temperate forests comprised of trees that seasonally shed their leaves, located in the east of the USA, in Western Europe from the Alps to Scandinavia, and in the eastern Asia. The hardwood of these forests have been exploited since the 16th century. The trees of deciduous forests usually produce nuts and winged seeds.
2005 deciduous tree Tree losing its leaves in autumn and growing new ones in the spring.
2006 decision Means the exercise of agency authority at any stage of an undertaking where alterations might be made in the undertaking to modify its impact upon historic and cultural properties.
2009 decision process
2014 decomposition The more or less permanent breakdown of a molecule into simpler molecules or atoms.
2015 decontamination The removing of chemical, biological, or radiological contamination from, or the neutralizing of it on a person, object, or area.
202 agricultural land Land used primarily for the production of plant or animal crops, including arable agriculture, dairying, pasturage, apiaries, horticulture, floriculture, viticulture, animal husbandry and the necessary lands and structures needed for packing, processing, treating, or storing the produce.
2020 decree A declaration of the court announcing the legal consequences of the facts found.
2022 deep sea Region of open ocean beyond the continental shelf.
2023 deep sea deposit
2024 deep-sea disposal The disposal of solid waste or sludge by carrying the wastes out to sea, usually in a barge, and dumping into deep water.
2025 deep sea fishing Fishing in the deepest parts of the sea.
2029 deer The common name for 41 species of even-toed ungulates that compose the family Cervidae in the order Artiodactyla; males have antlers.
2031 defence The act or process of protecting citizens or any geographical area by preparing for or by using military means to resist the attack of an enemy.
2035 defoliation 1) The drop of foliage from plants caused by herbicides such as Agent Orange, diuron, triazines, all of which interfere with photosynthesis. The use of defoliants, as in Vietnam or in jungle clearance for agriculture, can permanently destroy tropical forests. Once the tree cover is removed, the soil is subjected to erosion and precious nutrients are rapidly leached away. 2) Destroying (an area of jungle, forest, etc.) as by chemical sprays or incendiary bombs, in order to give enemy troops or guerilla forces no place of concealment.
2036 deforestation The removal of forest and undergrowth to increase the surface of arable land or to use the timber for construction or industrial purposes. Forest and its undergrowth possess a very high water-retaining capacity, inhibiting runoff of rainwater.
2039 degradability The capacity of being decomposed chemically or biologically.
204 agricultural landscape
2040 degradation A type of organic chemical reaction in which a compound is converted into a simpler compound in stages.
2041 degradation of natural resources The result of the cumulative activities of farmers, households, and industries, all trying to improve their socio-economic well being. These activities tend to be counterproductive for several reasons. People may not completely understand the long-term consequences of their activities on the natural resource base. The most important ways in which human activity is interfering with the global ecosystem are: a) fossil fuel burning which may double the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration by the middle of the next century, as well as further increasing the emissions of sulphur and nitrogen very significantly; b) expanding agriculture and forestry and the associated use of fertilizers (nitrogen and phosphorous) are significantly altering the natural circulation of these nutrients; c) increased exploitation of the freshwater system both for irrigation in agriculture and industry and for waste disposal.
2042 degradation product Those chemicals resulting from partial decomposition or chemical breakdown of substances.
2044 degreasing 1) Removing grease from wool with chemicals. 2) Removing grease from hides or skins in tanning by tumbling them in solvents. 3) Removing grease, oil, or fatty material from a metal surface with fumes from a hot solvent.
2048 de-inking Series of processes by which various types of printing inks are removed from paper fibre pulp during the pre-processing and recycling of recovered paper products. Particularly necessary where high quality and whiteness of the finished product are required.
2050 delinquency
2052 delta A delta is a vast, fan-shaped creation of land, or low-lying plain, formed from successive layers of sediment washed from uplands to the mouth of some rivers, such as the Nile, the Mississippi and the Ganges. The nutrient-rich sediment is deposited by rivers at the point where, or before which, the river flows into the sea. Deltas are formed when rivers supply and deposit sediments more quickly that they can be removed by waves of ocean currents. The importance of deltas was first discovered by prehistoric man, who was attracted to them because of their abundant animal and plant life. Connecting waterways through the deltas later provided natural routes for navigation and trade, and opened up access to the interior. Deltas are highly fertile and often highly populated areas. They would be under serious threat of flooding from any sea-level rise.
2053 demand The desire, ability and willingness of an individual to purchase a good or service. The consumer must have the funds or the ability to obtain funds in order to convert the desire into demand. The demand of a buyer for a certain good is a schedule of the quantities of that good which the individual would buy at possible alternative prices at a given moment in time.
2054 democracy A system of governance in which ultimate authority power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their freely elected agents.
2055 demographic development Growth in the number of individuals of a population.
2056 demographic evolution The gradual pattern of change in the growth of human populations in a particular region or country, from a rapid increase in the birth and death rates to a leveling off in the growth rate due to reduced fertility and other factors.
206 agricultural legislation Agricultural law is a blend of traditional fields of law including the law of contracts, bailments, torts, criminal, environmental, property, nuisance, wills and estates, and tax law. As such, it is a gathering of statutory and common law.
2060 demography The statistical study of human vital statistics and population dynamics.
2062 demolition business The activity of reducing buildings or other structures to rubble.
2064 demolition waste Masonry or rubble wastes arising from the demolition of buildings or other civil engineering structures.
2066 demonstrability
2069 dendrochronology The science of dating the age of a tree by studying annual growth rings. It is also employed to interpret previous environments and climatic variations by examining certain kinds of trees. It is based on the theory that the width of the growth ring reflects the amount of rainfall and the temperature of the year in which it was formed.
207 agricultural machinery Machines utilized for tillage, planting, cultivation and harvesting of crops. Despite its benefits in increasing yields, mechanisation has clearly had some adverse environmental effects: deep ploughing exposes more soil to wind and water erosion; crop residues can be removed as opposed to ploughing back into the soil; removal of residues can lead to a serious loss of organic content in the soil, which may increase the risk of soil erosion.
2070 dendrometry The measuring of the diameter of standing trees from the ground with a dendrometer that can also be used to measure tree heights.
2071 denitrification 1) The loss of nitrogen from soil by biological or chemical means. It is a gaseous loss, unrelated to loss by physical processes such as through leachates. 2) The breakdown of nitrates by soil bacteria, resulting in the release of free nitrogen. This process takes place under anaerobic conditions, such as are found in water-logged soil, and it reduces soil fertility.
2072 denitrification of waste gas Current methods for controlling NOx emissions in motor vehicles include retardation of spark timing, increasing the air/fuel ratio, injecting water into the cylinders, decreasing the compression ratio, and recirculating exhaust gas. For stationary sources, one abatement method is to use a lower NOx producing fuel or to modify the combustion process by injecting steam into the combustion chamber.
208 agricultural management The administration or handling of soil, crops and livestock.
2083 deposited particulate matter
2084 deposition The process by which polluting material is precipitated from the atmosphere and accumulates in ecosystems.
2088 deregulation The removal or relaxation of government control over the economic activities of some commercial entity, industry or economic sector.
2093 dermapteran
2098 desalination Removal of salt, as from water or soil.
2099 desalination plant 1) Plants for the extraction of fresh water from saltwater by the removal of salts, usually by distilling. 2) Parts of the world with severe water shortages are looking to desalination plants to solve their problems. Desalination of water is still nearly four times more expensive than obtaining water from conventional sources. However technology is improving and costs are likely to decrease slightly in the future. There is now more interest in building distillation plants beside electric installations so that the waste heat from power generation can be used to drive the desalination process.
21 agreement (administrative) A coming together of minds; a coming together in opinion or determination; the coming together in accord of two minds on a given proposition. In law, a concord of understanding and intention between two or more parties with respect to the effect upon their relative rights and duties, of certain past or future facts or performances. The consent of two or more persons concerning respecting the transmission of some property, right, or benefits, with the view of contracting an obligation, a mutual obligation. The union of two or more minds in a thing done or to be done; a mutual assent to do a thing.
210 agricultural method Practices and techniques employed in agriculture to improve yields and productivity. Over the last few decades they have undergone big changes: tilling, sowing and harvesting have become increasingly mechanised, and the methods of applying fertilisers and pesticides have become more sophisticated. Many changes within the agricultural system can be summed up by "intensification". The result and aim of intensification has been to achieve increases in production, yields and labour productivity in agriculture.
2103 desert A wide, open, comparatively barren tract of land with few forms of life and little rainfall.
2105 desertification 1) The development of desert conditions as a result of human activity or climatic changes. 2) The process of land damage which allows the soil to spread like a desert in arid and semi-arid regions. There is a loss of vegetative cover and the soil deteriorates in texture, nutrient content and fertility. Desertification affects the lives of three-quarters of the world's population, 70% of all drylands and one quarter of the total land area of the planet. There are many reasons for desertification, but the majority are caused by human activities, overgrazing, deforestation, poor land management and over-exploitation. Agenda 21 states that the priority in combating desertification should be establishing preventive measures for lands that are not yet, or are only slightly, degraded.
2109 desertification control Remedial and preventive actions adopted against desertification include irrigation, planting of trees and grasses, the erection of fences to secure sand dunes, and a careful management of water resources.
2111 desert locust
2115 design (project) A graphic representation, especially a detailed plan for construction or manufacture.
2117 desk study
2119 desorption The process of removing a sorbed substance by the reverse of adsorption or absorption.
212 agricultural pest Insects and mites that damage crops, weeds that compete with field crops for nutrients and water, plants that choke irrigation channels or drainage systems, rodents that eat young plants and grain, and birds that eat seedlings or stored foodstuffs.
2124 desulphurisation The removal of sulphur, as from molten metals or petroleum oil. Sulphur residues in fuels end up as sulphur dioxide when the fuel is burned causing acid rain.
2125 desulphurisation of fuel Removal of sulfur from fossil fuels (or removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion fuel gases) to reduce pollution.
2127 detection The act or process of discovering evidence or proof of governmental, legal or ethical violations.
2129 detector A mechanical, electrical, or chemical device that automatically identifies and records or registers a stimulus, such as an environmental change in pressure or temperature, an electrical signal, or radiation from a radioactive material.
213 agricultural planning The development of plans and measures to achieve greater and more efficient output from agriculture; a sound agricultural policy should be able to reconcile three basic needs: the production of food and agricultural products, the protection of the environment and the maintenance of the socio-economic structure of rural areas.
2131 detergent A surface-active agent used for removing dirt and grease from a variety of surfaces and materials. Early detergents contained alkyl sulphonates, which proved resistant to bacterial decomposition, causing foaming in rivers and difficulties in sewage treatment plants. These hard detergents were replaced during the 1960s with soft biodegradable detergents. Apprehension continues to be expressed about the use of phosphates in detergents, helping to promote the process of eutrophication. No satisfactory substitute has yet emerged.
2139 determination method Method employed in the assessment or in the evaluation of a quantity, a quality, a fact, an event, etc.
2140 deterrent Any measure, implement or policy designed to discourage or restrain the actions or advance of another agent, organization or state.
2143 detoxification The act or process of removing a poison or the toxic properties of a substance in the body.
2147 developed country A nation possessing a relatively high degree of industrialization, infrastructure and other capital investment, sophisticated technology, widespread literacy and advanced living standards among its populations as a whole.
215 agricultural policy A course of action adopted by government or some other organization that determines how to deal with matters involving the cultivation of land; raising crops; feeding, breeding and raising livestock or poultry; and other farming issues.
2151 developing countries debt
2152 developing country A country whose people are beginning to utilize available resources in order to bring about a sustained increase in per capita production of goods and services.
2155 development aid The economic assistance or other types of support provided to developing countries to promote or encourage advancement in living standards, institutions, infrastructure, agricultural practices and other aspects of an economy, and to resolve problems typically associated with developing countries.
2156 development area Area which has been given special help from a government to encourage business and factories to be set up there.
2157 development co-operation
2158 development model A description, representation, or conception of the economic advancement process of a region or people.
2159 development pattern The combination of qualities, structures, acts and tendencies characterizing the economic and social growth of a community or human group.
216 agricultural pollution The liquid or solid wastes from farming, including: runoff from pesticides, fertilizers, and feedlots; erosion and dust from plowing; animal manure and carcasses, crop residues, and debris.
2160 development planning The act or process of formulating a course of action that promotes the economic advancement of a region or people, particularly in countries known to have low levels of economic productivity and technological sophistication.
2161 development plan The statement of local planning policies that each local planning authority is required by statute to maintain, and which can only be made or altered by following the procedures prescribed for that purpose, which include obligations to consult widely and to hold a public local inquiry into objections. The development plan includes: 1) the structure plan for the area (normally prepared by the country council); 2) an area-wide development plan for each district council area.
2167 dialysis A process of selective diffusion through a membrane; usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not.
2168 diatom Unicellular algae, some of which are colonial, green or brownish in colour (but all contain chlorophyll) and with siliceous and often highly sculptured cell walls. Diatoms make up much of the producer level in marine and freshwater food chains, and they have contributed to the formation of oil reserves. Deposits of diatomaceous earths were formed by the accumulation of diatom cell walls.
2173 dictionary A reference book containing an explanatory alphabetical list of words, as a book listing a comprehensive or restricted selection of the words of a language; identifying usually, the phonetic, grammatical, and semantic value of each word, often with etymology, citations, and usage guidance and other information.
2175 didactics The art or science of teaching.
2177 diesel engine An internal combustion engine operating on a thermodynamic cycle in which the ratio of compression of the air charge is sufficiently high to ignite the fuel subsequently injected into the combustion chamber.
2179 diesel fuel Heavy oil residue used as fuel for certain types of diesel engines.
2182 differentiation The development of cells so that they are capable of performing specialized functions in the organs and tissues of the organisms to which they belong.
2185 diffuse source Pollution which arises from various activities with no discrete source.
2186 diffusion The spontaneous movement and scattering of particles (atoms and molecules), of liquid, gases, and solids.
2187 digested sludge Sludge or thickened mixture of sewage solids with water that has been decomposed by anaerobic bacteria.
2188 digester Machine which takes refuse and produces gas such as methane from it.
219 agricultural production
2190 digestion (sewage) The reduction in volume and the decomposition of highly putrescible organic matter to relatively stable or inert organic and inorganic compounds. Sludge digestion is usually done by aerobic organisms in the absence of free oxygen.
2195 digital land model A representation of a surface's topography stored in a numerical format. Each pixel has been assigned coordinates and an altitude.
2196 digitising The process of converting data to a form used in computers, transmitted or stored with digital technology and expressed as a string of 0's and 1's.
22 access road Any street or narrow stretch of paved surface that leads to a specific destination, such as a main highway.
220 agricultural product The output of the cultivation of the soil.
2200 diluted acid A less concentrated acid.
2207 dioxin A by-product formed during the preparation of the herbicide 2, 4, 5-T, and sometimes produced by the incineration of chlorinated organic compounds. It may also occur naturally and is distributed widely in the environment, except locally in extremely low concentrations. Substantial amounts were released by the industrial accident of Seveso in 1976.
2211 direct discharger Factories and industrial concerns which do not discharge their sewage directly into public sewers, but directly into a waterway.
2212 directive The second rank of administrative acts (inferior to regulations, superior to decisions) made by the council or commission of the European Communities on order to carry out their tasks in accordance with the Treaties. They must be addressed to states, not individuals, but many create rights for individuals or allow the directive to be pleaded before municipal court.
2213 disabled person Person lacking one or more physical power, such as the ability to walk or to coordinate one's movements, as from the effects of a disease or accident, or through mental impairment.
2215 disaster The result of a vast ecological breakdown in the relations between man and his environment, a serious and sudden event (or slow, as in drought) on such a scale that the stricken community needs extraordinary efforts to cope with it, often with outside help or international aid.
2216 disaster cleanup operation A course or procedure of activity designed to clear the debris or remove harmful substances left by an ecological calamity, natural or human in origin, in a given area.
2218 disaster contingency plan An anticipatory emergency plan to be followed in an expected or eventual disaster, based on risk assessment, availability of human and material resources, community preparedness, local and international response capability, etc.
2219 disaster control service Work done or agency established to analyze, plan, assign and coordinate available resources in order to prepare for, respond to, mitigate and recover from damage caused by an ecological calamity, natural or human in origin.
2220 disaster preparedness The aggregate of measures to be taken in view of disasters, consisting of plans and action programmes designed to minimize loss of life and damage, to organize and facilitate effective rescue and relief, and to rehabilitate after disaster. Preparedness requires the necessary legislation and means to cope with disaster or similar emergency situations. It is also concerned with forecasting and warning, the education and training of the public, organization and management, including plans, training of personnel, the stockpiling of supplies and ensuring the needed funds and other resources.
2221 disaster prevention The aggregate of approaches and measures to ensure that human action or natural phenomena do not cause or result in disaster or similar emergency. It implies the formulation and implementation of long-range policies and programmes to eliminate or prevent the occurrence of disasters.
2222 disaster relief Money, food or other assistance provided for those surviving a sudden, calamitous event causing loss of life, damage or hardship.
2226 discharge legislation
2227 discharge regime The rate of flow of a river at a particular moment in time, related to its volume and its velocity.
2232 disease A definite pathological process having a characteristic set of signs and symptoms which are detrimental to the well-being of the individual.
2233 disease cause
2237 disinfectant An agent, such as heat, radiation, or a chemical, that disinfects by destroying, neutralizing, or inhibiting the growth of disease-carrying microorganisms.
2238 disinfection The complex of physical, chemical or mechanical operations undertaken to destroy pathogenic germs.
224 agricultural storage Any deposit or holdings of farm products, fertilizers, grains, feed and other related supplies in facilities or containers, often to prevent contamination or for times when production cannot meet demand.
2242 dispatch note
2245 dispersion A distribution of finely divided particles in a medium.
2246 dispersion calculation The calculation of pollutant dispersion is based on the use of air dispersion models that mathematically simulate atmospheric conditions and behaviour. Dispersion models can provide concentration or deposition estimates and can be used to evaluate both existing and hypothetical emissions scenarios.
2247 displaced person Persons who, for different reasons or circumstances, have been compelled to leave their homes.
2253 disposal of the dead
2254 disposal of warfare materials Disposal of the material remnants of war, which can seriously impede development and cause injuries and the loss of lives and property. The disposal of warfare waste is problematic because it can be highly dangerous, toxic, long-living and requires the utilization of specific and sophisticated technologies, particularly in the case of mines and unexploded bombs which have been left on the war territories.
2257 dissolution Dissolving of a material.
2259 dissolved organic carbon The fraction of total organic carbon (all carbon atoms covalently bonded in organic molecules) in water that passes through a 0.45 micron pore-diameter filter.
2260 distillation The process of producing a gas or vapour from a liquid by heating the liquid in a vessel and collecting and condensing the vapours into liquids.
2262 distilling industry A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the manufacture and marketing of alcoholic beverages made by a distillation process of vaporization and condensation, such as vodka, rum, whiskey and other related beverages.
2263 distortion of competition Article 85(1) of the EEC Treaty prohibits all agreements between undertakings, decisions by associations of undertakings and concerted practices which may affect trade between member states and which have as their object or effect the prevention, restriction or distortion of competition within the common market. All such arrangements are automatically null and void under Article 85(2), unless exempted by the Commission pursuant to Article 85(3). The text of Article 85 is as follows: "1. The following shall be prohibited as incompatible with the common market: all agreements between undertakings, decisions by associations of undertakings and concerted practices which may affect trade between member states and which have as their object or effect the prevention, restriction or distortion of competition within the common market, and in particular those which: (a) directly or indirectly fix purchase or selling prices or any other trading conditions; (b) limit or control production, markets, technical development, or investment; (c) share markets or sources of supply; (d) apply dissimilar conditions to equivalent transactions with other trading parties, thereby placing them at a competitive disadvantage; (e) make the conclusion of contracts subject to acceptance by the other parties of supplementary obligations which, by their nature or according to commercial usage, have no connection with the subject of such contracts.
2264 distribution In an environmental context, the term refers to the dispersion of air pollutants and depends on the type of pollution source (point source, line source, diffuse source), the wind velocity and the wind direction. Distribution can be active or passive.
2269 district heating The supply of heat, either in the form of steam or hot water, from a central source to a group of buildings.
2270 district heating plant Plant for heating all houses in a district; it consists of a large, efficient, centralized boiler plant or "waste" steam from a power station. The heat is distributed by means of low-pressure steam or high-temperature water to the consumers.
2275 disused military site Military site where all activity has ceased. Such areas, being extremely well sheltered against outside disturbances and in many ways less affected by human landuse than many other open landscapes, can contain significant natural habitats and rare or endangered wildlife. Abandoned military territories constitute an important source of natural landscapes to be managed and restored in an environmentally sound way.
2276 ditch A long, narrow excavation artificially dug in the ground; especially an open and usually unpaved waterway, channel, or trench for conveying water for drainage or irrigation, and usually smaller than a canal. Some ditches may be natural watercourses.
2279 DNA The principal material of inheritance. It is found in chromosomes and consists of molecules that are long unbranched chains made up of many nucleotides. Each nucleotide is a combination of phosphoric acid, the monosaccharide deoxyribose and one of four nitrogenous bases: thymine, cytosine, adenine or guanine. The number of possible arrangements of nucleotides along the DNA chain is immense. Usually two DNA strands are linked together in parallel by specific base-pairing and are helically coiled. Replication of DNA molecules is accomplished by separation of the two strands, followed by the building up of matching strands by means of base-pairing, using the two halves as templates. By a mechanism involving RNA, the structure of DNA is translated into the structure of proteins during their synthesis from amino acids.
2282 document Material of any kind, regardless of physical form, which furnishes information, evidence or ideas, including items such as contracts, bills of sale, letters, audio and video recordings, and machine readable data files.
2284 documentation The process of accumulating, classifying and disseminating information, often to support the claim or data given in a book or article.
2285 documentation centre Centre for assembling, coding, and disseminating recorded knowledge comprehensively treated as an integral procedure, utilizing various techniques for giving documentary information maximum accessibility and usability.
2286 document type Any one of a number of diverse classes of written, printed or digitized items furnishing information or evidence, and distinguished by content, form or function.
2287 dog A common four-legged animal, especially kept by people as a pet or to hunt or guard things.
229 agricultural waste Unusable materials, liquid or solid, that result from agricultural practices, such as fertilizers, pesticides, crop residue (such as orchard prunings) and cattle manure.
2290 domestic appliance A machine or device, especially an electrical one used domestically.
2291 domesticated animal 1) Wild animal which has been trained to live near a house and not be frightened of human beings; 2) species which was formerly wild, now selectively bred to fill human needs.
2293 domestic fuel Fuels obtained from different sources that are used for domestic heating.
2294 domestic fuel oil Liquid petroleum product used in domestic heaters.
2298 domestic noise Noise caused by domestic facilities and activities.
23 access to culture The ability, right and permission to approach and use, or the general availability of resources that transmit the beliefs, customs, artistic activity and knowledge of a people.
2300 domestic trade Trade wholly carried on at home; as distinguished from foreign commerce.
2301 domestic waste Waste generated by residential households and comprised of any material no longer wanted or needed.
2304 domestic waste landfill Site for the disposal of wastes arising from domestic activities.
2305 domestic waste water Wastewater principally derived from households, business buildings, institutions, etc., which may or may not contain surface runoff, groundwater or storm water.
2307 dosage The amount of a substance required to produce an effect.
2308 dose The amount of test substance administered. Dose is expressed as weight of test substance (g, mg) per unit weight of test animal (e.g., mg/kg), or as weight of food or drinking water.
2309 dose-effect relationship The relation between the quantity of a given substance and a measurable or observable effect.
2315 draft legislation An initial unsigned agreement, treaty, or piece of legislation which is not yet in force.
2316 dragonfly Any of the insects composing six families of the suborder Anisoptera and having four large, membranous wings and compound eyes that provide keen vision.
2319 drainage 1) Removal of groundwater or surface water, or of water from structures, by gravity or pumping. 2) The discharge of water from a soil by percolation (the process by which surface water moves downwards through cracks, joints and pores in soil and rocks).
232 agriculture The production of plants and animals useful to man, involving soil cultivation and the breeding and management of crops and livestock.
2323 drainage water Incidental surface waters from diverse sources such as rainfall, snow melt or permafrost melt.
2324 draught animal
2326 dredged material Unconsolidated material removed from rivers, streams, and shallow seas with machines such as the bucket-ladder dredge, dragline dredge, or suction dredge.
2327 dredging Removing solid matter from the bottom of a water area.
233 agriculture and cattle industry Large scale growing of crops and livestock grazing for profit.
2330 olive oil mill wastewater Aqueous residue deriving from the process of oil extraction from olives; it is composed of the olive-combined water and of the water used in the extraction and washing processes. It also contains a certain percentage of mineral compounds and of organic substances that are only partially biodegradable.
2332 drift net fishing The use of fishing nets of great length and depth, aptly described as "walls of death" because of the huge numbers of marine mammals, birds, and turtles that became ensnared in them. The Tarawa Declaration of 1989 formulated at the 20th South Pacific Forum, aimed at banning drift netting in the South Pacific. In June 1992 the UN banned drift netting in all the world's oceans.
2333 drilling The act of boring holes in the earth for finding water or oil, for geologic surveys, etc.
2336 drilling installation The structural base upon which the drill rig and associated equipment is mounted during the drilling operation.
2339 drinking water Water that is agreeable to drink, does not present health hazards and whose quality is normally regulated by legislation.
2340 drinking water protection area Area surrounding a water recovery plant in which certain forms of soil utilization are restricted or prohibited in order to protect the groundwater.
2343 drinking water supply The provision and storage of potable water, or the amount of potable water stored, for the use of a municipality, or other potable water user.
2344 drinking water treatment The Directive on the Quality of Surface Water Intended for Drinking Water defines three categories of water treatment (A1, A2, A3) from simple physical treatment and disinfection to intensive physical and chemical treatment. The treatment to be used depends on the quality of the water abstracted. The Directive uses imperative values for parameters known to have an adverse effect on health and also guide values for those which are less adverse. There is also a directive which complements the "surface water abstraction" Directive by indicating the methods of measurement and the frequency of sampling and analysis required.
2347 drought A period of abnormally dry weather sufficiently prolonged so that the lack of water causes a serious hydrologic imbalance (such as crop damage, water supply shortage) in the affected area.
235 agriculture framework plan A formulated or systematic method for the management of soil, crops and livestock.
2350 drought control Measures taken to prevent, mitigate or eliminate damage caused to the ecosystem, especially crops, by a sustained period of dry weather.
2352 drug abuse
2354 drug (medicine) A chemical substance used internally or externally as a medicine for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment or cure of disease, for the relief of pain or to control or enhance physical or mental well-being.
2358 dry cleaning To clean fabrics etc. with a solvent other than water.
2359 dry deposition The accumulation of both particles and gases as they come into contact with soil, water or vegetation on the earth's surfaces.
2360 dry farming A system of extensive agriculture allowing the production of crops without irrigation in areas of limited rainfall. Dry farming involves conserving soil moisture through mulching, frequent fallowing, maintenance of a fine tilth by cross-ploughing, repeated working of the soil after rainfall and removal of any weeds that would take up some of the moisture.
2361 drying The process of partially or totally removing water or other liquids from a solid.
2363 drying out Removal of water from any substance.
2364 dual economy An economy based upon two separate/distinct economic systems which co-exist in the same geographical space. Dualism is characteristic of many developing countries in which some parts of a country resemble advanced economies while other parts resemble traditional economies, i.e. there are circuits of production and exchange.
2365 dual waste management To reduce the quantity of packaging waste, and thereby of overall MSW, Germany introduced a far-reaching legislation to reduce waste, based on the producer's responsibility principle. Industry was given the option to set up a third party organization which would carry out the collection and sorting of sales packaging for care of manufacturers and retailers. Thus, Some 600 companies created "Duales System Deutschland" in 1990 ("Dual" because it meant creating a second collection system in parallel to the existing waste collection system of the local authorities). Duales System Deutschland (DSD), now has overall responsibility for the separate collection and recycling of packaging. At present, the Dual System is the only nationwide system for the collection and sorting of sales packaging. Packaging participating in this collection system is marked with the Green Dot.
2367 dumping The discarding of waste in any manner, often without regard to environmental control.
237 agrochemical Any substance or mixture of substances used or intended to be used for preventing, destroying, repelling, attracting, inhibiting, or controlling any insects, rodents, birds, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, weeds or other forms of plant, animal or microbial life regarded as pests.
2372 land disposal The discharge, deposit or injection of any waste onto or into the soil or other land surfaces.
2377 dune A low mound, ridge, bank, or hill of loose, windblown granular material (generally sand, sometimes volcanic ash), either bare or covered with vegetation, capable of movement from place but always retaining its characteristic shape.
2380 duration of sunshine Period of the day during which the sun is shining.
2381 dust Any kind of solid material divided in particles of very small size.
2383 dust immission
2384 dust removal The removal of dust from air by ventilation or exhaust systems.
2386 registration obligation The duty to formally enroll with a government agency or an authority in order to be granted certain rights, particularly trademark or copyright privileges, or the permission to sell and distribute a product.
2387 dwelling Any enclosed space wholly or partially used or intended to be used for living, sleeping, cooking, and eating.
2389 dye A coloring material.
239 agroforestry The interplanting of farm crops and trees, especially leguminous species. In semiarid regions and on denuded hillsides, agroforestry helps control erosion and restores soil fertility, as well as supplying valuable food and commodities at the same time.
2393 dyke An artificial wall, embankment, ridge, or mound, usually of earth or rock fill, built around a relatively flat, low-lying area to protect it from flooding; a levee. A dyke may be also be constructed on the shore or border of a lake to prevent inflow of undesirable water.
2394 dyke reinforcement The addition of material to strengthen the structure of the dykes.
2398 early warning system Any series of procedures and devices designed to detect sudden or potential threats to persons, property or the environment at the first sign of danger; especially a system utilizing radar technology.
24 access to the sea
240 agroindustry Industry dealing with the supply, processing and distribution of farm products.
2400 earth's crust The outer layers of the Earth's structure, varying between 6 and 48 km in thickness, and comprising all the material above the Mohorovicic Discontinuity (a seismic discontinuity occurring between the crust of the earth and the underlying mantle; the discontinuity occurs at an average depth of 35 km below the continents and at about 10 km below the oceans). The earlier idea of a cool solid skin overlaying a hot molten interior has now been replaced by a concept of a crust composed of two shells: an inner basic unit composed of sima (oceanic crust) and an outer granitic unit composed of sial (continental crust).
2402 earthquake The violent shaking of the ground produced by deep seismic waves, beneath the epicentre, generated by a sudden decrease or release in a volume of rock of elastic strain accumulated over a long time in regions of seismic activity (tectonic earthquake). The magnitude of an earthquake is represented by the Richter scale; the intensity by the Mercalli scale.
2405 earth science The science that deals with the earth or any part thereof; includes the disciplines of geology, geography, oceanography and meteorology, among others.
2406 Earth-Sun relationship The Earth depends on the sun for its existence as a planet hospitable to life, and solar energy is the major factor determining the climate. Hence, conditions on the sun and conditions on Earth are inextricably linked. Although the sun's rays may appear unchanging, its radiation does vary. Many scientists suspect that sunspot activity has a greater influence on climatic change than variations attributed to the greenhouse effect.
2408 earthworm Any of numerous oligochaete worms of the genera Lumbricus, Allolobophora, Eisenia, etc., which burrow in the soil and help aerate and break up the ground.
2409 earwig Any of various insects of the order Dermaptera, especially Forficula auricularia, which typically have an elongated body with small leathery forewings, semicircular membranous hindwings, and curved forceps at the tip of the abdomen.
241 agrometeorology The study of the interaction between meteorological and hydrological factors, on the one hand, and agriculture in the widest sense, including horticulture, animal husbandry and forestry, on the other.
2411 East Africa A geographic region of the African continent that includes Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia and Somalia, and also Mt. Kilimanjaro and Lake Victoria.
2412 Eastern Asia A geographic region of the Asian continent bordered by the Pacific Ocean in the east that includes China, Japan, Korea, Macao, Taiwan and Siberia.
2413 Eastern Europe A geographic region of the European continent west of Asia and east of Germany and the Adriatic Sea, traditionally consisting of countries that were formerly part of the Soviet Union, such as Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Croatia and Bulgaria.
2414 East-West relations
2415 East-West trade Trade between countries and companies of the Western hemisphere with those of the Eastern hemisphere (usually referring to former Communist countries of Eastern Europe).
2419 EC Council of Ministers The organ of the EU that is primarily concerned with the formulation of policy and the adoption of Community legislation. The Council consists of one member of government of each of the member states of the Community, and its presidency is held by each state in turn for periods of six months.
2422 EC directive A type of legislation issued by the European Union which is binding on Member States in terms of the results to be achieved but which leaves to Member States the choice of methods.
2423 EC directive on biocides Directive regulating the placing of biocidal products on the market.
2424 EC directive on packaging EC Directive proposed on 15 July 1992 aiming at harmonizing national measures concerning the management of packaging and packaging waste; the directive covers all packaging placed on the market.
2425 EC directive on waste disposal EC Directive whose main object concerns waste prevention, recycling and transformation into alternative energy sources.
2426 EC directive on water protection Directive concerning the use and management of water resources for a rational economical and social development and the protection of the related environmental features.
2427 EC ecolabel The European Community (EC) initiative to encourage the promotion of environmentally friendly products. The scheme came into operation in late 1992 and was designed to identify products which are less harmful to the environment than equivalent brands. For example, eco-labels will be awarded to products that do not contain chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) which damage ozone layer, to those products that can be, or are, recycled, and to those that are energy efficient. The labels are awarded on environmental criteria set by the EC. These cover the whole life cycle of a product, from the extraction of raw materials, through manufacture, distribution, use and disposal of the product. The first products to carry the EC eco-labels were washing machines, paper towels, writing paper, light bulbs and hairsprays.
2428 echinoderm Marine coelomate animals distinguished from all others by an internal skeleton composed of calcite plates, and a water-vascular system to serve the needs of locomotion, respiration, nutrition or perception.
243 AIDS The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is caused by HIV-virus manifested by opportunistic infections and/or malignancies, and the mortality rate is very high. The syndrome results from a breakdown of the body's disease-fighting mechanism that leaves it defenceless against infections, such as pulmonary tuberculosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia, certain blood infections, candidiasis, invasive cervical cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma or any of over 20 other indicator diseases. No effective treatment is available. A striking feature of AIDS is the wide spectrum and frequency of infections with life-threatening pathogens seldom seen in normal hosts. The illness may begin with insidious signs and symptoms, and the process may be more diffuse than when the same conditions are seen in other immune-compromised patients. Four patterns of disease occur in AIDS patients. The pulmonary pattern, the central nervous system pattern, the gastrointestinal pattern, and the pattern of fever of unknown origin. Most patients who recover from a given opportunistic infection subsequently either have a relapse or develop a new type of infection. Many patients continue to have a wasting syndrome and experience such infections as oral thrush. Feelings of depression and isolation are common among AIDS patients and can be intensified if health care workers display fear of the syndrome. aquired immune deficiency syndrome
2434 ecodevelopment 1) Conservative development based on long term optimization of biosphere resources. 2)An approach to development through rational use of natural resources by means of appropriate technology and system of production which take into account and provide for the conservation of nature.
2435 ecolabelling The European Community's initiative to encourage the promotion of environmentally friendly products. The scheme came into operation in late 1992 and was designed to identify products which are less harmful to the environment than equivalent brands. It was hoped that by buying labelled goods, consumers would be able to put pressure on manufacturers and retailers both to make and to stock "greener" products. This includes the effects they have on the environment at all stages. The labels are awarded on environmental criteria set by the EC.
2437 ecological abundance Number of individual specimens of an animal or plant seen over a certain period of time in a certain place.
2438 ecological adaptation Change in an organism so that it is better able to survive or reproduce, thereby contributing to its fitness.
2440 ecological assessment Ecological assessment consists in monitoring the current and changing conditions of ecological resources from which success or failure of the ecosystem can be judged without bias; understanding more fully the structure and function of ecosystems in order to develop improved management options; developing models to predict the response of ecosystems to changes resulting from human-induced stress from which possible ecosystem management strategies can be assessed and assessing the ecological consequences of management actions so that decisionmakers can best understand the outcomes of choosing a particular management strategy.
2441 ecological balance The condition of equilibrium among the components of a natural community such that their relative numbers remain fairly constant and their ecosystem is stable. Gradual readjustments to the composition of a balanced community take place continually in response to natural ecological succession and to alterations in climatic and other influences.
2442 ecological bookkeeping The systematic accounting or recordkeeping of a company's impact on the environment or its progress towards environmentally sound business practices.
245 air A predominantly mechanical mixture of a variety of individual gases forming the earth's enveloping atmosphere.
2450 ecological factor An environmental factor that, under some definite conditions, can exert appreciable influence on organisms or their communities, causing the increase or decrease in the number of organisms and/or changes in the communities.
2456 ecological niche 1) The space occupied by a species, which includes both the physical space as well as the functional role of the species. 2) Ecological niche refers to the characteristics of an environment that provides all the essential food and protection for the continued survival of a particular species of flora or fauna. In addition to food and shelter, there is no long-term threat to existence in that place from potential predators, parasites and competitors. The concept of the ecological niche goes a long way beyond the idea of the species habitat.
2457 ecological parameter A variable, measurable property whose value is a determinant of the characteristics of an ecosystem.
2461 ecologically sensitive area Area where it is likely that a change in some parts of the system will produce a recognizable response.
2463 ecological stocktaking Taking stock of, evaluating, or inventorying a company's impact on the environment or its progress towards environmentally sound business practices.
2469 ecologist movement Grouping of individuals and organizations dedicated to the protection of the environment.
2470 ecology The study of the interrelationships between living organisms and their environment.
2474 trophic ecology The study of the feeding relationships of organisms in communities and ecosystems. Trophic links between populations represent flows of organisms, organic energy and nutrients. Trophic transfers are important in population dynamics, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem energetics.
2476 economic activity Any effort, work, function or sphere of action pertaining to the production of goods, services or any other resource with exchange value.
2477 economical-ecological efficiency The competency in performance in business matters involving the relation between financial and environmental principles.
2478 economic analysis The quantitative and qualitative identification, study, and evaluation of the nature of an economy or a system of organization or operation.
2484 economic development The state of nations and the historical processes of change experienced by them, the extent to which the resources of a nation are brought into productive use; the concept of development subsumes associated social, cultural and political changes as well as welfare measures.
2490 economic growth An increase over successive periods in the productivity and wealth of a household, country or region, as measured by one of several possible variables, such as the gross domestic product.
2493 economic instrument Any tool or method used by an organization to achieve general developmental goals in the production of, or in the regulation of, material resources.
2494 economic management instrument A tool or method used by any organization in the management of developmental processes used in the production of, or in the regulation of, material resources.
2497 economic planning An economy in which prices, incomes etc. are determined centrally by government rather than through the operation of the free market, and in which industrial production is governed by an overall national plan.
2498 economic policy A definite course of action adopted and pursued by a government, political party or enterprise pertaining to the production, distribution and use of income, wealth and commodities.
25 accident An unexpected occurrence, failure or loss with the potential for harming human life, property or the environment.
250 air conditioning A system or process for controlling the temperature and sometimes the humidity and purity of the air in a house, etc.
2501 economics The social study of the production, distribution, and consumption of wealth.
2505 economic situation The complex of elements which, in a given period, characterize the condition or state of a country or region's ability to produce goods, services and other resources with exchange value.
2508 economic system Organized sets of procedures used within or between communities to govern the production and distribution of goods and services.
2510 economic theory The study of relationships in the economy. Its purpose is to analyze and explain the behaviour of the various economic elements. The body of economic theory can be divided into two broad categories, positive theory and welfare theory. Positive theory is an attempt to analyze the operation of the economy without considering the desirability of its results in terms of ultimate goals. Welfare theory is concerned primarily with an evaluation of the economic system in terms of ethical goals which are not themselves derived from economic analysis.
2511 economic trend Changes of variables and parameters of an economic system, analysed in statistical calculations.
2512 economic viability Capability of developing and surviving as a relatively independent social, economic or political unit.
2514 economic zoning A land-use planning design or control where specific types of businesses or private sector investment are encouraged within designated boundaries.
2516 economy The system of activities and administration through which a society uses its resources to produce wealth.
2517 eco-paediatrics Branch of medical science concerning the study and the therapy of children diseases caused by environmental factors.
2518 ecophysiology The study of biophysical, biochemical and physiological processes used by animals to cope with factors of their physical environment, or employed during ecological interactions with other organisms.
2519 ecosystem A community of organisms and their physical environment interacting as an ecological unit.
2520 ecosystem analysis Detailed study of an ecosystem carried out to ascertain its features from the point of view of its soil composition, energy flux, biogeochemical cycles, biomass, organisms and their relationship with the environment.
2522 ecosystem degradation Degradation or destruction of large natural environments. When one ecosystem is under attack as a result of natural or man-made disaster it is extremely difficult to calculate the ripple effects throughout nature. When two or more ecosystems are being degraded the probabilities of synergistic destructiveness multiply. Ecosystems in many regions are threatened, despite their biological richness and their promise of material benefits.
2523 ecosystem research Study of the ways in which plants, animals, and microbes interact with each other and with their physical environment and of the processes involving the circulation, transformation and accumulation of both matter, especially nutrient materials, and energy.
2525 ecosystem type Ecosystems can be classified according to various criteria: from the point of view of energy source, two major types of ecosystems can be distinguished. Autotrophic ecosystems have primary producers as a principal component and sunlight has the major initial energy source; etherotrophic ecosystems depend upon preformed organic matter that is imported from autotrophic ecosystems elsewhere. Ecosystems can also be classified in terrestrial, marine and freshwater.
2527 ecotourism Excursions to relatively untouched lands, which for the tourist promise the chance to observe unusual wildlife and indigenous inhabitants. The travel industry, in an attempt to market adventure and authenticity to those travellers weary of "civilisation" promote travel to environments free of modern technology. Ecotourism's inherent contradiction is the promotion of untouched lands, which immediately become touched by the hands of tourism.
2528 ecotoxicity Quality of some substances or preparations which present or may present immediate or delayed risks for one or more sectors of the environment.
2529 ecotoxicological evaluation Evaluation of the adverse effects of chemicals, physical agents, and natural products on population and communities and plants, animals and human beings.
253 aircraft Any structure, machine, or contrivance, especially a vehicle, designed to be supported by the air, either by the dynamic action of the air upon the surfaces of the structure or object or by its own buoyancy.
2530 ecotoxicology The science dealing with the adverse effects of chemical, physical agents, and natural products on populations and communities of plants, animals and human beings.
2531 ecotype Species that has special characteristics which allow it to live in a certain habitat.
2533 EC policy
2534 EC regulation
2535 EC regulation on eco-management and audit
2536 EC regulation on existing chemicals Regulation designed to identify and control of risks deriving from existing chemicals. According to this program the main goal is the collection of basic information about existing chemicals including their uses and characteristics, environmental fate and pathways, toxicity and ecotoxicity.
2539 edaphology The study of the relationships between soil and organisms, including the use made of land by mankind.
2542 edible fat An oil that can be eaten as a food or food accessory.
2547 education The act or process of imparting or acquiring knowledge or skills.
255 aircraft engine emission The formation and discharge of gaseous and particulate pollutants into the environment, especially the stratosphere, chiefly from airplanes, helicopters and other high-altitude aircrafts.
2551 educational institution An organization or establishment devoted to the act or process of imparting or acquiring knowledge or skills.
2554 educational planning The process of making arrangements or preparations to facilitate the training, instruction or study that leads to the acquisition of skills or knowledge, or the development of reasoning and judgment.
2555 education policy A course of action adopted and pursued by government or some other organization, which promotes or determines the goals, methods and programs to be used for training, instruction or study that leads to the acquisition of skills or knowledge, or the development of reasoning and judgment.
2557 educational system Any formulated, regular or special organization of instruction, training or knowledge disclosure, especially the institutional structures supporting that endeavor.
256 aircraft noise Effective sound output of the various sources of noise associated with aircraft operation, such as propeller and engine exhaust, jet noise, and sonic boom.
2562 effect Effects include: a) direct effects, which are caused by the action and occur at the same time and place, b) indirect effects, which are caused by the action and are later in time or farther removed in distance, that are still reasonably foreseeable.
2564 effect on health
2565 effect on man
2566 effect on the environment Resultant of natural or manmade perturbations of the physical, chemical or biological components making up the environment.
2568 research of the effects Investigation carried out to assess the results deriving from an action or condition; general term applying to many different fields.
2569 efficiency criterion Parameter or rule for assessing the competency in performance of production relative to the input of resources.
2570 efficiency level The ratio of output to input, usually given as a percentage.
2571 effluent The waste liquid from domestic sewage, industrial sites or from agricultural processes. Effluents are harmful when they enter the environment, especially in freshwater, because of their polluting chemical composition.
2573 egg A large, female sex cell enclosed in a porous, calcareous or leathery shell, produced by birds and reptiles.
2578 EIA directive Council Directive of 27 June 1985 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment (85/337/EEC). The Directive applies to projects which are likely to have significant effects on the environment by virtue of their nature, size or location.
2579 EIA law Law concerning the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment, based on the EC Directive n. 85/337.
2580 EIA (local) The identification, evaluation and appraisal of the ecological consequences of a proposed project or development in a city, town or region, and the measures needed to minimize adverse effects.
2582 elasticity Ability of a material to return to original dimensions after deformation.
2584 elderly person Someone who has reached the later stage of life or who has attained a specified age within that stage.
2586 electrical engineering Engineering that deals with practical applications of electricity; generally restricted to applications involving current flow through conductors, as in motors and generators.
2587 electrical industry Industry for the production of electric energy.
2588 electrical storage device
2592 electricity A general term used for all phenomena caused by electric charge whether static or in motion.
2593 electricity company Company which is responsible for the supply and distribution of electric energy to a given area.
2594 electricity consumption Amount of electricity consumed by an apparatus.
2595 electricity generation The act or process of transforming other forms of energy into electric energy.
2596 electricity generation cost The value or amount of money exchanged for the production and sustained supply of charged ion current used as a power source.
2597 electricity supply industry Industry for the supply and distribution of electric power.
2599 electric line Wires conducting electric power from one location to another; also known as electric power line.
2601 electric power The rate at which electric energy is converted to other forms of energy, equal to the product of the current and the voltage drop.
2606 electric power plant A stationary plant containing apparatus for large-scale conversion of some form of energy (such as hydraulic, steam, chemical, or nuclear energy) into electrical energy.
2608 electric power supply
2612 electric vehicle Vehicle driven by an electric motor and characterized by being silent and less polluting.
2617 electrokinetics The study of the motion of electric charges, especially of steady currents in electric circuits, and of the motion of electrified particles in electric or magnetic fields.
2618 electrolysis The production of a chemical reaction by passing an electric current through an electrolyte. In electrolysis, positive ions migrate to the cathode and negative ions to the anode.
262 air movement Air movements within the Earth's atmospheric circulation; also called planetary winds. Two main components are recognized: first, the latitudinal meridional component due to the Coriolis force (a deflecting motion or force discussed by G.G. de Coriolis in 1835. The rotation of the Earth causes a body moving across its surface to be deflected to the right in the N hemisphere and to the left in the S hemisphere); and secondly, the longitudinal component and the vertical movement, resulting largely from varying pressure distributions due to differential heating and cooling of the Earth's surface.
2623 electronic material
2624 electronics Study, control, and application of the conduction of electricity through gases or vacuum or through semiconducting or conducting materials.
2625 electronic scrap Any material from electronic devices and systems, generated as a waste stream in a processing operation or discarded after service.
2626 electronic scrap regulation Government or management prescribed rule for the disposal and recycling of electric parts, circuits and systems, especially computer devices.
2628 electrosmog Pollution caused by electric and magnetic fields generated by power lines, electrical equipment, mobile and cordless phones, radar, electrical household appliances, microwave ovens, radios, computers, electric clocks, etc.
263 air pollutant Any pollutant agent or combination of such agents, including any physical, chemical, biological, radioactive substance or matter which is emitted into or otherwise enters the ambient air and can, in high enough concentrations, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material.
2633 electrotechnical equipment All the equipment connected with the technological use of electric power.
2634 electrotechnical industry A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the design, manufacture and marketing of machinery, apparatus and supplies for the generation, storage and utilization of electrical energy, such as household appliances, radio and television receiving equipment, and lighting and wiring equipment.
2635 element of group 0 A group of monatomic gaseous elements forming group 18 (formerly group 0) of the periodic table: helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and radon (Rn).
2636 element of group I (alkaline) Any of the monovalent metals lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium, and francium, belonging to group 1A of the periodic table. They are all very reactive and electropositive.
2637 element of group II (alkaline earth metals) Any of the divalent electropositive metals beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium, belonging to group 2A of the periodic table.
2638 element of group III Group III consists of two subgroups: group IIIb and group IIIa. Group IIIa consists of scandium, yttrium, and lanthanium, which is generally considered with the lanthanoids, and actinium, which is classified with the actinoids. Group IIIb, the main group, comprises boron, aluminium, gallium, indium, and thallium.
2639 element of group IV Group IV consists of two subgroups: group IVb, main group, and group IVa. Group IVa consists of titanium, zirconium, and hafnium which are generally classified as transition metals. The main group consists of carbonium, silicium, germanium, tin, and lead. The main valency of the elements is IV, and the members of the group show a variation from nonmetallic to metallic behaviour in moving down the group. The reactivity of the elements increases down the group from carbon to lead. All react with oxygen on heating.
2640 element of group V Group V consists of two subgroups: group Vb, the main group, and group Va. Group Va consists of vanadium, niobium, and tantalum, which are generally considered with the transition elements. The main group consists of nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth.
2641 element of group VI Group VI consists of two subgroups: group VIb, the main group, and group VIa. Group VIa consists of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten. The main group consists of oxygen, sulphur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium.
2642 element of group VII Any of the elements of the halogen family, consisting of fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine.
2643 chemical element A substance made up of atoms with the same atomic number; common examples are hydrogen, gold, and iron. elements and their compounds <N>
265 air pollution Presence in the atmosphere of large quantities of gases, solids and radiation produced by the burning of natural and artificial fuels, chemical and other industrial processes and nuclear explosions.
2651 emancipation The state of being free from social or political restraint or from the inhibition of moral or social conventions.
2653 embryo An early stage of development in multicellular organisms.
2654 embryogenesis The formation and development of an embryo from an egg.
2655 emergency law
2656 emergency plan Program of procedures to be undertaken in the event of a sudden, urgent and usually unexpected occurrence requiring immediate action, especially an incident of potential harm to human life, property or the environment.
2657 emergency relief Money, food or other assistance provided for those surviving a sudden and usually unexpected occurrence requiring immediate action, especially an incident of potential harm to human life, property or the environment.
2658 emergency relief measure
2661 emergency shelter Shelter given to persons who are deprived of the essential needs of life following a disaster.
2663 emission The release of greenhouse gases or air pollutants and/or their precursors into the atmosphere over a specified area and period of time
2665 emission control Procedures aiming at reducing or preventing the harm caused by atmospheric emissions.
2666 emission data Data concerning pollutants released into the environment from a permanent or mobile installation or from products.
2667 emission factor The relationship between the amount of pollutants produced to the amount of raw materials processed, or fuel consumed, in any polluting process.
2668 emission forecast The final step in a clean air plan is to predict future air quality to demonstrate that we can (if we can) meet the health standards by implementing the measures proposed in the plan. This is done by first projecting the emission inventory into the future, taking into account changes in population, housing, employment in specific business sectors, and vehicle miles traveled. These data are obtained from various sources and the resulting emissions are adjusted to account for regulations and control measures scheduled for implementation during the same time period. Additional adjustments are made to reflect large facilities that are expected to start up, modify, or shut down. The resulting inventory is an emission forecast, and is usually expressed in tons per day of particular pollutants for a given year. Additional steps may be required to determine how the forecasted quantities of air pollution will affect the overall air quality. One way to accomplish this is through computer modeling. A computer model simulates how pollutants disperse, react, and move in the air. The inputs to such a computer model are complex. They include weather patterns, terrain, and the chemical nature of air pollutants.
267 airport A landing and taking-off area for civil aircraft, usually with surfaced runways and aircraft maintenance and passenger facilities.
2670 emission reduction The act or process of limiting or restricting the discharge of pollutants or contaminants, such as by setting emission limits or by modifying the emission source.
2671 emission reduction banking A system for recording qualified air emission reductions for later use in bubble, offset, or netting transactions. Plant complexes that reduce emissions substantially may "bank" their "credits" or sell them to other industries. a system for recording qualified air emission reductions for later use in bubble, offset or netting transactions (emission trading) <D>
2672 emission register A listing, by source, of the amounts of air pollutants discharged in the atmosphere of a community daily.
2673 emission situation
2674 emission source A chemical process, building, furnace, plant or other entity responsible for the discharge of pollutants or contaminants into the environment.
2677 emission standard The maximum amount of discharge legally allowed from a single source, mobile or stationary.
2679 emission to water The discharge of solid, liquid or gaseous pollutants or contaminants into a body of water.
2683 employment The work or occupation in which a person is employed.
2684 employment and environment Issues or initiatives pertaining to the inter-relationship between ecological concerns and the economics of employment, including sustained, environmentally safe development; the effect of environmental activism on jobs; and the creation of environmental occupations.
2687 employment level effect The result or impact of a specific policy, action or event upon the number of working-age persons holding jobs in a specific region, nation or sector of the economy.
2689 emulsification The process of dispersing one liquid in a second immiscible liquid.
2691 emulsion A stable dispersion of one liquid in a second immiscible liquid, such as milk (oil dispersed in water).
2693 encapsulation The enclosure of any polluting product with a material that prevents its release in the environment.
2696 encyclopaedia A comprehensive, often multivolume, reference work containing articles on a wide rage of subjects or on various aspects of a particular field, usually, alphabetically arranged.
2697 endangered animal species Animals, birds, fish or other living organisms threatened with extinction by natural or human-induced changes in their environment.
270 air quality The degree to which air is polluted; the type and maximum concentration of man-produced pollutants that should be permitted in the atmosphere.
2700 endangered plant species The plants threatened with extinction by human or natural changes in the environment.
2702 endangered species (IUCN) One of the three degrees of "rarity" drawn up by the International Union for the Conservation of Natural Resources. All plants and animals in these categories need special protection. Endangered species are those species in danger of extinction unless steps are taken to change the cause of threat and decline.
2704 groundwater endangering Threat to the quality and quantity of groundwater by activities related to the use of land. As some activities (e.g. landfill) present a particular risk of pollution, the closer an activity is to a well or borehole, the greater the risk of the pumped water being polluted. The type of soil, the geology, the rainfall and the amount of water pumped out of the ground must all be taken into consideration.
2705 endocrine system The chemical coordinating system in animals, that is, the endocrine glands that produce hormones.
2706 endocrinology The study of the endocrine glands and the hormones that they synthesize and secrete.
2707 end-of-pipe technology An approach to pollution control which concentrates upon effluent treatment or filtration prior to discharge into the environment, as opposed to making changes in the process giving rise to the wastes.
2712 energy The capacity to do work; involving thermal energy (heat), radiant energy (light), kinetic energy (motion) or chemical energy; measured in joules.
2713 energy balance The energetic state of a system at any given time.
2714 energy conservation The strategy for reducing energy requirements per unit of industrial output or individual well-being without affecting the progress of socio-economic development or causing disruption in life style. In temperate developed countries most energy is used in heating and lighting industrial and domestic buildings. Industrial processes, transport and agriculture are the other main users. During the 1970s it was demonstrated that substantial savings could be achieved through appropriate building technologies and the use of energy-efficient equipment for heating, air-conditioning and lighting. Most goods could and should be both manufactured and made to work more efficiently.
2715 energy consumption Amount of energy consumed by a person or an apparatus shown as a unit.
2716 energy conversion The process of changing energy from one form to another.
2718 energy demand
272 air quality control The measurement of ambient air-pollution concentrations in order to determine whether there is a problem in a given region.
2720 energy dissipation Any loss of energy, generally by conversion into heat.
2722 energy distribution system Any publicly or privately organized setup in which usable power such as electricity is delivered to homes and businesses.
2723 energy economics The production, distribution, and consumption of usable power such as fossil fuel, electricity, or solar radiation.
2724 energy efficiency Refers to actions to save fuels by better building design, the modification of production processes, better selection of road vehicles and transport policies, the adoption of district heating schemes in conjunction with electrical power generation, and the use of domestic insulation and double glazing in homes.
2729 energy legislation
2730 energy management The administration or handling of power derived from sources such as fossil fuel, electricity and solar radiation.
2731 energy market The trade or traffic of energy sources treated as a commodity (such as fossil fuel, electricity, or solar radiation).
2733 energy policy A statement of a country's intentions in the energy sector.
2734 energy process Any natural phenomenon or series of actions by which energy is converted or made more usable.
2735 energy production Generation of energy in a coal fired power station, in an oil fired power station, in a nuclear power station, etc.
2736 energy recovery A form of resource recovery in which the organic fraction of waste is converted to some form of usable energy. Recovery may be achieved through the combustion of processed or raw refuse to produce steam through the pyrolysis of refuse to produce oil or gas; and through the anaerobic digestion of organic wastes to produce methane gas.
2738 energy resource Potential supplies of energy which have not yet been used (such as coal lying in the ground, solar heat, wind power, geothermal power, etc.).
274 air quality management Regulate and plan and work toward the accomplishment of completion of stated goals, objectives and mission pertaining to air quality.
2740 energy saving Avoiding wasting energy.
2741 energy source Potential supplies of energy including fossil and nuclear fuels as well as solar, water, wind, tidal and geothermal power.
2742 energy source material Sources from which energy can be obtained to provide heat, light, and power. Energy resources, including fossil and nuclear fuels as well as solar, water, tidal and geothermal energy, may be captured or recovered and converted into other energy forms for a variety of household, commercial, transportation, and industrial applications.
2744 energy storage Amount of energy reserves; often refers to the stocks of non-renewable fuel, such as oil, which a nation, for example, possesses.
2746 energy supply The provision and storage of energy (the capacity to do work or produce a change), or the amount of energy stored, for the use of a municipality, or other energy user.
2747 energy technology
2748 energy type According to the source, energy can be classified as hydroenergy, solar energy, tidal energy, wind energy, waves energy, geothermal energy, etc.. According to the type of fuel used for its production, energy can be classified as nuclear energy, coal derived energy, petroleum derived energy, biomass derived energy, etc.
2749 energy utilisation
2751 energy utilisation pattern
2753 enforcement The execution, carrying out or putting into effect an order, regulation, law or official decree.
2754 engine A machine in which power is applied to do work by the conversion of various forms of energy into mechanical force and motion.
2755 enlargement policy
2756 enlargement programme
2758 enriched uranium Uranium whose concentration of uranium-235, which is able to sustain a nuclear chain reaction, is increased by removing uranium-238.
2759 enrichment The process of increasing the abundance of a specified isotope in a mixture of isotopes. It is usually applied to an increase in the proportion of U-235, or the addition of Pu-239 to natural uranium for use in a nuclear reactor or weapon.
2760 adequate food supply A quantity of nutriments that meets fundamental nutritional requirements and is provided to a person, group or community on a continuing basis.
2766 environmental accident An unexpected occurrence, failure or loss, with the potential for harming the ecosystem or natural resources.
2767 environmental accounting
2769 environmental protection advice Consultations or recommendations given as a guide of action regarding the preservation of ecological integrity and the defense or shelter of natural resources.
277 air safety Any measure, technique or design intended to reduce the risk of harm posed by either moving vehicles or projectiles above the earth's surface or pollutants to the earth's atmosphere.
2771 environmental anxiety
2772 environmental sustainable architecture Environmentally friendly architecture is based on the following five principles: 1) healthful interior environment; 2) energy efficiency; 3) ecologically benign materials; 4) environmental form; 5) good design.
2773 environmental aspect of human settlements Human settlements have an adverse impact on many ecosystems and on themselves by the addition of toxic or harmful substances to the outer lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. The major types of environmental pollutants are sewage, trace metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic organic compounds, and gaseous emissions. Most, if not all, of the additions of potentially harmful substances to the environment are result of the population growth and the technological advances of industrial societies.
2774 environmental assessment The evaluation or appraisal of ecological or natural resources.
2775 environmental assessment criterion Principle or standard for the evaluation or appraisal of ecological or natural resources.
2776 environmental auditing An assessment of the nature and extent of any harm or detriment, or any possible harm or detriment, that may be inflicted on any aspect of the environment by any activity process, development programme, or any product, chemical, or waste substance. Audits may be designed to: verify or otherwise comply with environmental requirements; evaluate the effectiveness of existing environmental management systems; assess risks generally; or assist in planning for future improvements in environment protection and pollution control
2778 environmental awareness The growth and development of awareness, understanding and consciousness toward the biophysical environment and its problems, including human interactions and effects. Thinking "ecologically" or in terms of an ecological consciousness.
2779 environmental balance Final part of the environmental impact study and assessment which compares environmental costs and benefits on the basis of homogeneous criteria.
2782 environmental change Changes that may take place in ecosystems, climate, soil, habitats, etc. due to pressures of various origin.
2783 environmental chemicals legislation
2784 environmental chemistry Science dealing with the physical, chemical and biochemical processes that polluting substances undergo when introduced in the environment.
2786 environmental compatibility Condition of products or projects of having a reduced impact or burden on the natural environment.
2789 environmental consequence Resultant of natural or man-made perturbations of the physical, chemical or biological components making up the environment.
279 airspace planning The activity of organizing or preparing for transportation through the atmosphere above earth's surface.
2790 environmental conservation Efforts and activities to maintain and sustain those attributes in natural and urban environments which are essential both to human physical and mental health and to enjoyment of life.
2793 environmental contingency planning The production of an organized, programmatic and coordinated course of action to be followed in the case of some accident, disaster or occurrence threatening an ecosystem and the human health or natural resources within it.
2795 environmental control Protection of the environment through policies concerning the control of wastes, the improvement of the human-made environment, the protection of heritage values, the institution of national parks and reserves, the protection of fauna and flora, the conservation of forests and landscapes, etc.
2796 environmental cost Expenses incurred as a result of some violation of ecological integrity either by an enterprise that implements a program to rectify the situation, or by society or the ecosystem as a whole when no person or enterprise is held liable.
2797 environmental crime Unlawful acts against the environment, such as water contamination, hazardous waste disposal, air contamination, unpermitted installation of plants, oil spills, etc.
2798 environmental criminal law The aggregate of statutory enactments pertaining to actions or instances of ecological negligence deemed injurious to public welfare or government interests and legally prohibited.
2799 environmental criterion Standards of physical, chemical or biological (but sometimes including social, aesthetic, etc.) components that define a given quality of an environment.
28 accidental release of organisms Genetically engineered organisms that are released in the environment by mistake; once released they may exhibit some previously unknown pathogenicity, might take over from some naturally occurring bacteria (possibly having other positive functions which thus are lost) or pass on some unwanted trait to such indigenous bacteria. There is also concern that an uncontrolled genetic mutation could produce a form with hazardous consequences for the environment.
2801 environmental culture The total of learned behavior, attitudes, practices and knowledge that a society has with respect to maintaining or protecting its natural resources, the ecosystem and all other external conditions affecting human life.
2802 environmental damage Harm done to the environment, e.g. loss of wetlands, pollution of rivers, etc.
2803 environmental data Information concerning the state or condition of the environment.
2805 environmental development The growth, progress or advancement in matters of ecological concern.
281 air temperature The temperature of the atmosphere which represents the average kinetic energy of the molecular motion in a small region and is defined in terms of a standard or calibrated thermometer in thermal equilibrium with the air.
2810 environmental economy issue A matter of public importance involving both a community's or a country's management of financial resources and its protection of natural resources.
2811 environmental economics A recognized field of specialization in the discipline of Economics that embraces the issues of pollution control and environment protection, in which costs and benefits are difficult or impossible to estimate, much of the subject matter falling outside the competitive market system. Yet, it is an area in which immense common property resources need to be allocated sensibly to the overall public good. The subject is also very much concerned with ways and means to achieve this sensible allocation such as emission and effluent charges, user charges for the treatment or disposal of waste, environmental taxes, product charges, deposit refunds, tradeable pollution rights, performance bonds, natural resource accounting, and the economic implications of sustainable development.
2814 environmental education The educational process that deals with the human interrelationships with the environment and that utilizes an interdisciplinary problem-solving approach with value clarification. Concerned with education progress of knowledge, understanding, attitudes, skills, and commitment for environmental problems and considerations. The need for environmental education is continuous, because each new generation needs to learn conservation for itself.
2817 environmental enterprise Organisations that are specialized in providing advice on environmental matters, for example investigation and remediation of potentially polluted land, water and air, and in the evaluation of environmental impacts; they employ professionals with the qualifications of engineering, geology, chemistry, hydrogeology, landscaping, environmental economics, etc.
2818 environmental ethics An ecological conscience or moral that reflects a commitment and responsibility toward the environment, including plants and animals as well as present and future generations of people. Oriented toward human societies living in harmony with the natural world on which they depend for survival and well being.
282 air traffic Aircraft moving in flight or on airport runways.
2821 environmental fund Financial resources set aside for measures involving ecological maintenance or the protection, defense, or shelter of natural resources.
2823 environmental hazard A physical or chemical agent capable of causing harm to the ecosystem or natural resources.
2824 environmental health The art and science of the protection of good health, the prevention of disease and injury through the control of positive environmental factors, and the reduction of potential physical, biological, chemical and radiological hazards.
2825 environmental health hazard Any physical, chemical or other agent capable of causing harm to the interrelationship between humans and the surrounding external conditions, threatening both human well-being and ecological integrity.
2826 environmental health impact assessment Assessment of impacts caused by an action on the health conditions of a population.
2827 environmental health protection Measures or devices designed to reduce the risk of harm to human health posed by pollutants or other threatening conditions in the ecosystem.
2828 environmental history A systematic and chronological account of past events and conditions relating to the ecosystem, its natural resources or, more generally, the external factors surrounding and affecting human life.
2829 environmental impact Any alteration of environmental conditions or creation of a new set of environmental conditions, adverse or beneficial, caused or induced by the action or set of actions under consideration.
2830 environmental impact assessment Analysis and judgement of the effects upon the environment, both temporary and permanent, of a significant development or project. It must also consider the social consequences and alternative actions.
2831 environmental impact of agriculture Agricultural activities have significant impacts on water quality, including increases in stream sedimentation from erosion, and increases in nutrients, pesticides, and salt concentrations in runoff. In certain regions, the misuse of pesticides has led to the development of pesticide-resistant strains of pests, destroyed natural predators, killed local wildlife, and contaminated human water supplies. Improper application of fertilizers has changed the types of vegetation and fish types inhabiting nearby waterways and rivers.
2832 environmental impact of aquaculture Fish farming pollutes the water with nutrients, methane and hydrogen sulphide which threaten both farmed fish and other marine life. Dangerous pesticides have been used to treat infestations of sea lice.
2833 environmental impact of energy Energy and environmental problems are closely related, since it is nearly impossible to produce, transport, or consume energy without significant environmental impact. The environmental problems directly related to energy production and consumption include air pollution, water pollution, thermal pollution, and solid waste disposal. The emission of air pollutants from fossil fuel combustion is the major cause of urban air pollution. Diverse water pollution problems are associated with energy usage. One major problem is oil spills. In all petroleum-handling operations, there is a finite probability of spilling oil either on the earth or in a body of water. Coal mining can also pollute water. Changes in groundwater flow produced by mining operations often bring otherwise unpolluted waters into contact with certain mineral materials which are leached from the soil and produce an acid mine drainage. Solid waste is also a by-product of some forms of energy usage. Coal mining requires the removal of large quantities of earth as well as coal. In general, environmental problems increase with energy use and this combined with the limited energy resource base is the crux of the energy crisis. An energy impact assessment should compare these costs with the benefits to be derived from energy use.
2834 environmental impact of fishing Fishing may have various negative effects on the environment: effluent and waste from fish farms may damage wild fish, seals, and shellfish. Fish farmers use tiny quantities of highly toxic chemicals to kill lice: one overdose could be devastating. So-called by-catches, or the incidental taking of non-commercial species in drift nets, trawling operations and long line fishing is responsible for the death of large marine animals and one factor in the threatened extinction of some species. Some fishing techniques, like the drift nets, yield not only tons of fish but kill millions of birds, whales and seals and catch millions of fish not intended. Small net holes often capture juvenile fish who never have a chance to reproduce. Some forms of equipment destroy natural habitats, for example bottom trawling may destroy natural reefs. Other destructive techniques are illegal dynamite and cyanide fishing.
2835 environmental impact of forestry The world's forestry resources are shrinking at an alarming rate. The need for foreign exchange encourages many developing countries to cut timber faster than forests can be regenerated. This overcutting not only depletes the resource that underpins the world timber trade, it causes loss of forest-based livelihoods, increases soil erosion and downstream flooding, and accelerates the loss of species and genetic resources.
2836 environmental impact of households Household impacts on the environment include domestic heating emissions (hot air, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, water vapour and oxide of nitrogen, sulphur and other trace gases); domestic sewage consisting of human bodily discharges, water from kitchens, bathrooms and laundries; the dumping of bulky wastes such as old washing machines, refrigerators, cars and other objects that will not fit into the standard dustbin and which are often dumped about the countryside, etc.
2837 environmental impact of industry The effects on the environment connected with industrial activities are mainly related to the production of industrial wastes that can be divided into various types: solid waste, such as dust particles or slag from coal; liquid wastes from various processes, including radioactive coolants from power stations; and gas wastes, largely produced by the chemical industry.
2838 environmental impact of recreation Recreation and tourism are often accompanied by extensive damage to the environment. Aquatic ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to the effects of an increased tourist trade and the resultant building of hotel accommodations, sewage disposal works, roads, car parks and landing jetties on banks and coastlines; and the increased angling, swimming, water skiing, shooting or use of motor-boats in the water body. These all produce direct deleterious effects when conducted on a massive scale, including shore damage, chemical changes in the water, and sediments and biological changes in the plant and animal communities.
2839 environmental impact of tourism Extensive damage to the environment caused by recreation and tourism, including despoiling of coastlines by construction of tourist facilities; pollution of the sea; loss of historic buildings to make way for tourist facilities; loss of agricultural land for airport development, etc.
2840 environmental impact of transport Impact of transportation-related activities on the environment, in particular, those impacts dealing with air pollution, noise, displacement of people and businesses, disruption of wildlife habitats, and overall growth-inducing effects.
2841 environmental impact statement A detailed statement which, to the fullest extent possible, identifies and analyses, among other things, the anticipated environmental impact of a proposed action and discusses how the adverse effects will be mitigated.
2844 environmental impact study Survey conducted to ascertain the conditions of a site prior to the realization of a project, to analyze its possible impacts and compensative measures.
2845 environmental incentive
2847 environmental indicator A measurement, statistic or value that provides a proximate gauge or evidence of the effects of environmental management programs or of the state or condition of the environment.
2848 environmental index An index of available environmental articles from 1972 to present; also known as Environmental Abstract Annual.
2849 environmental industry Industries involved in the development of cleaner technologies, waste and wastewater treatment, recycling processes, biotechnology processes, catalysts, membranes, desulphurisation plants, noise reduction, and the manufacture of other products having an environment protection purpose.
285 air traffic law International rules and conventions relating to air transportation.
2850 environmental informatics Science and techniques of data elaboration and of computer processing of information concerning ecosystems and ecology.
2851 environmental information Knowledge communicated or received concerning any aspect of the ecosystem, the natural resources within it or, more generally, the external factors surrounding and affecting human life.
2852 environmental information network A system of interrelated persons and devices linked to permit the exchange of data or knowledge concerning natural resources, human health and other ecological matters.
2853 environmental information system A coordinated assemblage of people, devices or other resources designed to exchange data or knowledge concerning any aspect of the ecosystem, the natural resources within or, more generally, the external factors surrounding and affecting human life.
2856 environmental investment Securities held for the production of income in the form of interest and dividends with the aim of benefitting the environment.
2857 environmentalism 1) Concern for the environment and its protection. 2) Theory emphasizing the primary influence of the environment on the development of groups or individuals. It stresses the importance of the physical, biological, psychological, or cultural environment as a factor influencing the structure or behaviour of animals, including humans. In politics, this has given rise in many countries to Green Parties, which aim to " Preserve the planet and its people".
2859 environmental law A wide spectrum of options from binding "hard" laws, such as international treaties and national legislation, to "soft" laws, covering guiding principles, recommended practices and procedures, and standards. Environmental law also attempts to reconcile international considerations with concerns that focus on very specific problems such as soil degradation, marine pollution or the depletion of non-renewable resources.
286 air traffic regulation
2860 environmental law enforcement Any variety of activities associated with promoting compliance and obedience to those binding rules of a state that have been promulgated to safeguard ecological integrity, preserve natural resources and protect human health.
2862 environmental legislation Branch of law relating to pollution control; national parks, wildlife, fauna and flora, wilderness and biodiversity; environmental and occupational health; environmental planning; heritage conservation and a large number of international conventions relating to the environment.
2863 environmental legislation on agriculture A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to regulate any aspect of farm and livestock production that poses a threat to ecological integrity and human health, especially the use of pesticides, fertilizers and land.
2864 environmental legislative process The systematic course of proceedings in which a bill that would preserve or protect ecological resources may be enacted as a law.
2865 environmental liability The penalty to be paid by an organization for the damage caused by pollution and restoration necessary as a result of that damage, whether by accidental spillages from tankers, industrial waste discharges into waterways or land, or deliberate or accidental release of radioactive materials.
2866 environmental licence A governmental license or grant that allows and regulates an enterprise's discharge of air pollutants, typically from a commercial or industrial plant.
2869 environmentally dangerous substance Substance that causes undesirable change in the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of the air, water, or land that can harmfully affect the health, survival, or activities of human or other living organisms.
2870 environmental friendly procurement The process of obtaining products and services which are favorably disposed toward the environment.
2871 environmentally friendly product Product that is not harmful to the environment.
2872 environmentally friendly management Adoption of integrated and preventative management practices aiming at reducing the impacts of industrial and trade activities on the environment; these practices include, among others, life-cycle analysis in the product development cycle, the introduction of clean process technology and measures of waste minimisation.
2873 environmentally related disease
2874 environmentally responsible behaviour
2876 environmentally unfriendly firm Firms that do not comply with environmental regulations for the disposal of noxious wastes generated during the production cycle.
2877 environmental management Measures and controls which are directed at environmental conservation, the rational and sustainable allocation and utilization of natural resources, the optimization of interrelations between society and the environment, and the improvement of human welfare for present and future generations.
2880 environmental medicine The art and science of the protection of good health, the promotion of aesthetic values, the prevention of disease and injury through the control of positive environmental factors, and the reduction of potential physical, biological, chemical, and radiological hazards.
2881 environmental misconduct
2882 environmental monitoring Periodic and/or continued measuring, evaluating, and determining environmental parameters and/or pollution levels in order to prevent negative and damaging effects to the environment. Also include the forecasting of possible changes in ecosystem and/or the biosphere as a whole.
2884 environmental noise The sound and the characteristics of sounds from all sources in the surrounding environment.
2886 environmental perception An intuitive recognition or understanding of the ecosystem and its natural resources, often based on human experiences or cultural attitudes or beliefs.
2887 environmental performance
2889 environmental planning The identification of desirable objectives for the physical environment, including social and economic objectives, and the creation of administrative procedures and programmes to meet those objectives.
289 air transportation The use of aircraft, predominantly airplanes, to move passengers and cargo.
2890 environmental plan A formulated or systematic method for the protection of natural or ecological resources.
2892 environmental policy Official statements of principles, intentions, values, and objective which are based on legislation and the governing authority of a state and which serve as a guide for the operations of governmental and private activities in environmental affairs.
2893 environmental policy instrument Technological, economical and legislative measures employed to prevent or control pollution or damage of the environment.
2895 environmental pollution The introduction by man into the environment of substances or energy liable to cause hazards to human health, harm to living resources and ecological systems, damage to structure or amenity, or interference with legitimate uses of the environment.
2896 environmental priority
2897 environmental programme An organized group of activities and procedures, often run by a government agency or a nonprofit organization, to protect natural or ecological resources and advocate for ecological progress.
290 air-water interaction The physical processes at the air-water interface: momentum, heat and mass transfer across the air-water interface, mixing of surface water by wind stress and wave breaking, directional wave spectra and wave forces on offshore structures. The air-water interaction is measured by the turbulence and gas exchanges resulting from the mixing of the water column by wind.
2900 environmental protection Measures and controls to prevent damage and degradation of the environment, including the sustainability of its living resources.
2901 environmental protection agency EPA is the US Government's watchdog agency responsible for controlling the pollution of air and water, pesticides, radiation hazards and noise pollution. The agency is also involved in research to examine the effects of pollution.
2902 environmental protection association Associations whose object resides in the protection of natural environment.
2903 environmental protection cost The amount of money incurred in the preservation, defense, or shelter of natural resources.
2905 environmental protection in the enterprise Precautionary actions, procedures or installations undertaken by non-governmental, business or industrial entities to prevent or reduce harm to the ecosystem and human health.
2907 environmental protection order
2908 environmental protection organisation A government agency, committee or group that is responsible for preserving and safeguarding ecological or natural resources.
2909 environmental protection regulation A government or management prescribed rule for the preservation of natural resources and the prevention of damage or degradation of the ecosystem.
2910 environmental protection technology Technologies that meet environmental objectives by incorporating pollution prevention concepts in their design. Environmental control strategies introduced in the early design stages of a process, rather than an end-of-pipe control option introduced in the later stages, improve the technical and economic performance of a process.
2911 environmental psychology A branch of experimental psychology which studies the relationships between behavior and the environmental context in which it occurs. Environmental psychology's primary focus is the influence of the physical environment and, therefore, much of the research in this area deals with the influences of noise, air pollution, climatic changes, etc.
2912 environmental quality Properties and characteristics of the environment, either generalized or local, as they impinge on human beings and other organisms. Environmental quality is a general term which can refer to: varied characteristics such as air and water purity or pollution, noise, access to open space, and the visual effects of buildings, and the potential effects which such characteristics may have on physical and mental health.
2913 environmental quality criterion Criteria followed in establishing standards for exposure to pollutants and noise, in respect of pesticides, detergents, composition of effluents, discharge of trade wastes, etc.
2914 environmental quality objective
2915 environmental quality standard Normative documents and guidelines for determining the degree of environmental conditions and requirements to avoid negative and damaging effects, influences, and consequences.
2917 environmental report An account or statement, usually in writing, describing in detail events, situations or conditions pertaining to the ecosystem, its natural resources or any of the external factors surrounding and affecting human life.
2918 environmental research The study of the environment and its modifications caused by human activities.
2920 environmental risk assessment Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the risk posed to the environment by the actual or potential presence and/or use of specific pollutants.
2921 environmental risk Likelihood, or probability, of injury, disease, or death resulting from exposure to a potential environmental hazard.
2922 environmental science The interdisciplinary study of environmental problems, within the framework of established physical and biological principles, i.e. oriented toward a scientific approach.
2923 environmental security Measures taken or policies instituted to protect and promote the safety of external conditions affecting the life, development and survival of an organism.
2924 environmental specimen bank Places in which selected specimens (fish, mussels, milk, soil sample and human tissue, etc.) are stored without being allowed to decompose.
2925 environmental statement (eco-audit) Assessment made by a company or organization of the financial benefits and disadvantages to be derived from adopting a more environmentally sound policy.
2926 environmental statistics
2927 environmental stock exchange The buying, selling, or exchanging of ecological commodities.
2928 environmental subsidy Payment by a government to assist or improve performance regarding ecological maintenance or the protection, defense, or shelter of natural resources.
2929 environmental target Environmental elements of recognized importance which can be modified by the completion of a project.
293 alarm Signalling an impending danger in order to call attention to some event or condition.
2931 environmental teaching Instruction, training or the imparting of knowledge about the external conditions affecting the life, development and survival of organisms, including potential dangers to the ecosystem and the means to maintain its integrity.
2932 environmental technology
2934 environmental terminology The vocabulary of technical terms and usage appropriate to community, corporate, governmental and other groups concerned with protecting natural resources, preserving the integrity of the ecosystem and safeguarding human health.
2936 environmental training Teaching of specialists and qualified workers who acquire knowledge and skills necessary to solve environmental problems.
2938 environmental economic valuation The assessment, evaluation, or appraisal of business performance in matters involving ecology and finances.
2940 environmental vandalism
2941 environmental warfare The direct manipulation or destruction of ecological resources as either a political threat or for actual military advantage.
2943 environment friendly Human activities, enterprises or products that reinforce rather than undermine the integrity of the ecosystem.
2944 environment A concept which includes all aspects of the surroundings of humanity, affecting individuals and social groupings. The European Union has defined the environment as "the combination of elements whose complex interrelationships make up the settings, the surroundings and the conditions of life of the individual and of society, as they are or as they are felt". The environment thus includes the built environment, the natural environment and all natural resources, including air, land and water. It also includes the surroundings of the workplace.
2945 enzyme Any of a group of catalytic proteins that are produced by living cells and that mediate and promote the chemical processes of life without themselves being altered or destroyed.
2947 epidemic A sudden increase in the incidence rate of a disease to a value above normal, affecting large numbers of people and spread over a wide area.
2949 epidemiology 1) The study of the mass aspects of disease. 2) The study of the occurrence and distribution of disease and injury specified by person, place, and time.
2955 equine Animals belonging to the family of Equidae.
2956 equipment Any collection of materials, supplies or apparatuses stored, furnished or provided for an undertaking or activity.
2958 equivalent dose A quantity used in radiation protection, expressing all radiation on a common scale for calculating the effective absorbed dose. The unit of dose equivalent is the rem. which is numerically equal to the absorbed dose in rads multiplied by certain modifying factors such as the quality factor, the distribution factor, etc.
2960 ergonomics The study of human capability and psychology in relation to the working environment and the equipment operated by the worker.
2963 erosion The general process or the group of processes whereby the materials of Earth's crust are loosened , dissolved, or worn away and simultaneously moved from one place to another, by natural agencies, which include weathering, solution, corrosion, and transportation, but usually exclude mass wasting.
2964 erosion control Practices used during construction or other land disturbing activities to reduce or prevent soil erosion. Typical practices include planting of trees and quick growing grass on disturbed areas and other means to slow the movement of water across a disturbed site and trap the soil that does get transported by runoff.
2969 estuarine biology The scientific study or the characteristic life processes of living organisms found in a semi-enclosed coastal body of water which has a free connection with the open sea and within which sea water is measurably diluted with freshwater.
2970 estuarine conservation area Estuarine area which has been reserved by legislation to protect part or all of the enclosed environment for conservation, scientific, educational and/or recreational purposes.
2972 estuarine ecosystem
2973 estuarine oceanography The study of the physical, chemical, biological and geological characteristics of a semi-enclosed coastal body of water which has a free connection with the open sea and within which sea water is measurably diluted with fresh water.
2974 estuary Area at the mouth of a river where it broadens into the sea, and where fresh and sea water intermingle to produce brackish water. The estuarine environment is very rich in wildlife, particularly aquatic, but it is very vulnerable to damage as a result of the actions of humans.
2977 etching The incision of lines on a plate of metal, glass, or other material by covering it with an acid-resistant coating, scratching through the coating, and then permitting an acid bath to erode exposed parts of the plate.
2978 etching substance Substance capable of wearing away the surface of a metal, glass, etc. by chemical action.
2979 ether A colorless liquid, slightly soluble in water; used as a reagent, intermediate, anesthetic, and solvent.
298 alcohol A group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The molecules in the series vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group. Alcohol includes methanol and ethanol.
2980 ethics The philosophical study of the moral value of human conduct and of the rules and principles that ought to govern it.
2982 ethnology The science that deals with the study of the origin, distribution, and relations of races or ethnic groups of mankind.
2984 ethology The study of animal behaviour in a natural context.
2989 EU Council The Council of the European Union is an institution which exercises legislative and decision-making powers. At the same time, it is the forum in which the representatives of the Governments of the 15 Member States can assert their interests and try to reach compromises. The Council ensures general coordination of the activities of the European Community, the main objective of which is the establishment of an internal market, i.e. an area without internal frontiers guaranteeing four freedoms of movement - for goods, persons, services and capital - to which should soon be added a single currency. In addition, the Council is responsible for intergovernmental cooperation, in common foreign and security policy (CFSP) and in the areas of justice and home affairs (JHA), including for example matters of immigration and asylum, combating terrorism and drugs and judicial cooperation.
2991 Euratom A precursor to the European Community, the European Atomic Energy Community was founded in 1958 by the European Common Market to conduct research, develop nuclear energy, create a common market for nuclear fuels and supervise the nuclear industry so as to prevent abuse and protect health.
2992 Europe The second smallest continent, forming the W extension of Eurasia: the border with Asia runs from the Urals to the Caspian and the Black Sea. The coastline is generally extremely indented and there are several peninsulas (notably Scandinavia, Italy and Iberia) and offshore islands (including the British Isles and Iceland). It contains a series of great mountain systems in the south (Pyrenees, Alps, Apennines, Carpathians, Caucasus), a large central plain, and a N region of lakes and mountains in Scandinavia.
2993 European Commission The European Union's administrative body, composed of twenty independent members appointed by the Member States for five-year terms and vested with powers of initiative, implementation, management and control according to the mandates established in EU Treaties or handed down by the EU Council.
2996 European Court of Justice The supreme court of The European Union which oversees the application of the EU treaties, decides upon the validity and the meaning of Community legislation and determines whether any act or omission by the European Commission, the Council of Minister or any member state constitutes a breach of Community law.
2997 European Environment Agency The EEA is being set up to provide the European Community and its member states with objective, reliable and standardized information on the environment. It will assess the success of existing environmental policies and the data will be used to develop new policies for environmental protection measures. It will gather information covering the present, and foreseeable, state of the environment. The priority area are: air quality and emissions; water quality, pollutants and resources; soil quality, flora and fauna, and biotopes; land use and natural resources; waste management; noise pollution; chemicals; and protection of coastal areas. The Agency will also take into account the socio-economics dimension, cover transboundary and international matters, and avoid the duplication of the activities of other bodies.
2998 European Environmental Council
30 accident source The cause or origin of an unexpected occurrence, failure or loss with the potential for harming human life, property or the environment.
3000 European nature reserve
3002 European Parliament Formerly the "Assembly" of EEC. Comprises some 520 "representatives of the peoples" of European Community states, directly elected, and based in Strasbourg. Exercises advisory and supervisory powers; debates and passes resolutions and may veto admission of new member states.
3006 European Union The 15 nations (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, the UK, Austria, Finland and Sweden) that have joined together to form an economic community with common monetary, political and social aspirations. The EU came into being on 1 November 1993 according to the terms of the Maastricht Treaty; it comprises the three European Communities, extended by the adoption of a common foreign and security policy which requires cooperation between member states in foreign policy and security and cooperation in justice and home affairs.
3007 eutrophication A process of pollution that occurs when a lake or stream becomes over-rich in plant nutrient; as a consequence it becomes overgrown in algae and other aquatic plants. The plants die and decompose. In decomposing the plants rob the water of oxygen and the lake, river or stream becomes lifeless. Nitrate fertilizers which drain from the fields, nutrients from animal wastes and human sewage are the primary causes of eutrophication. They have high biological oxygen demand (BOD).
301 alga Simple, green, aquatic plants without stems, roots or leaves. They are among the microscopic organisms that form the start of the food chain. Algae are found floating in the sea and fresh water, but they also grow on the surface of damp walls, rocks, the bark of trees and on soil. They contain chlorophyll and other pigments that let them grow by photosynthesis. On land, algae can be useful in improving the fertility of soil by nitrogen fixation.
3011 evaluation
3012 evaluation criterion A standard, norm, value or measurement by which the quantity or quality of a process, object or person's work performance is ascertained through an analysis and judgment of the relevant information in context and in view of established goals, objectives and standards.
3013 evaluation method
3014 evaluation of technology
3019 evaporation Conversion from a liquid or solid state to a vapour.
3022 evapotranspiration Discharge of water from the earth's surface to the atmosphere by evaporation from lakes, streams and soil surfaces and by transpiration from plants. Also known as fly-off.
3026 evolution The biological theory or process whereby species of plants and animals change with the passage of time so that their descendants differ from their ancestors, i.e. development from earlier forms by hereditary transmission of slight variations in successive generations.
3027 exact science Mathematics and other sciences based on calculation.
3028 excavated hole A pit, cavity, or other uncovered cutting produced by excavation.
3029 excavation (process) The removal of earth from its natural position.
303 algal bloom Excessive and rapid growth of algae and other aquatic plants when they are stimulated to grow too quickly by pollution. It takes place when there are too many nutrients in the water and is aggravated when accompanied by a rise in temperature. Although the algae grow quickly they soon die because they have swallowed up all the water's nutrients. As they decompose they tend to rise to the surface and form a green slime. Algal bloom have increased because higher levels of nitrogen and phosphates from agricultural areas have leached from the fields into water courses.
3031 excavation heap Residue in form of a heap, consisting of earth or other material, produced by excavation.
3032 excavation site The location chosen for an excavation, meaning the act or process of removing soil and/or rock materials by digging, blasting, breaking, loading either at the surface or underground.
3033 excessive height of chimney stacks
3040 executive order An order or regulation issued by the president or some administrative authority under his direction for the purpose of interpreting, implementing or giving administrative effect to a provision of the constitution or of some law or treaty.
3044 exhaust device 1) A duct or pipe through which waste material is emitted. 2) A combination of components which provides for enclosed flow of exhaust gas from engine parts to the atmosphere.
3045 exhaust gas Offgas produced during combustion processes discharged directly or ultimately to the atmosphere.
3047 existing chemical Chemical products existing before 18-09-1981. chemicals traded or introduced in the EC defore 18.09.1981 concerning Chemikaliengesetz
3048 exotic species Plants, animals or microorganisms which are introduced by humans into areas where they are not native. Exotics are often associated with negative ecological consequences for native species and the ecosystems.
3049 expenditure Spending by consumers, investors, or government for goods or services.
305 algicide Any substance or chemical applied to kill or control algal growth.
3050 experiment A test under controlled conditions that is made to demonstrate a known truth, examine the validity of a hypothesis, or determine the efficacy of something previously untried.
3054 expert system A computer configuration of hardware and software that simulates the judgment and behavior of a human or an organization with extensive knowledge in a particular field, often by giving answers, solutions or diagnoses.
3057 exploration The search for economic deposits of minerals, ore, gas, oil, or coal by geological surveys, geophysical prospecting, boreholes and trial pits, or surface or underground headings, drifts, or tunnels.
3058 explosion A violent, sudden release of energy resulting from powders or gases undergoing instantaneous ignition or from some other means of detonation, often accompanied by a force producing great amounts of heat, major structural damages, shock waves and flying shrapnel.
3061 explosive A substance, such as trinitrotoluene, or a mixture, such as gunpowder, that is characterized by chemical stability but may be made to undergo rapid chemical change without an outside source of oxygen, whereupon it produces a large quantity of energy generally accompanied by the evolution of hot gases.
3063 export To send, take or carry an article of trade or commerce out of the country. To transport merchandise from one country to another in the course of trade.
3064 export licence Permission from a government to carry or send abroad and sell a product manufactured within its borders.
3065 export of hazardous wastes Transporting by-products of society that possesses at least one of four characteristics (ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity) to other countries or areas for the conduct of foreign trade.
3067 exposure The time for which a material is illuminated or irradiated.
3071 expropriation To deprive an owner of property, especially by taking it for public use.
3073 extensive cattle farming Farming system practiced in very large farms, characterized by low levels of inputs per unit area of land; in such situations the stocking rate, the number of livestock units per area , is low.
3079 externality Discrepancies between private costs and social costs or private advantages and social advantages; the basic concept of externality is interdependence without compensation.
308 alicyclic compound Any substance composed of two or more unlike atoms held together by chemical bonds characterized by straight-chained, branched or cyclic properties.
3081 extinction (ecological) 1) The complete disappearance of a species of plant or animal from the planet. 2) Disappearing of animals and plants from the biota.
3084 extinct species (IUCN) Animal or plant species which have completely disappeared from the planet.
3087 extraction Any process by which a pure metal is obtained from its ore.
309 alicyclic hydrocarbon A class of organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms joined to form one or more rings and having the properties of both aliphatic and cyclic substances.
3090 extractive industry Primary activities involved in the extraction of non-renewable resources.
3097 fabric Any cloth made from yarn or fibres by weaving, knitting, felting, etc.
3099 factor market Significant elements or reasons for an outcome in the buying, selling, and trading of particular goods or services.
3103 factory farming The technique of capital intensive animal-raising in an artificial environment, used for chicken, egg, turkey, beef, veal and pork production. Animals are restrained in a controlled indoor environment and their food is brought to them. The building take on the appearance of industrial units.
3106 faecal bacterium Bacteria contained in human and animal faeces.
311 aliphatic compound Any organic compound of hydrogen and carbon characterized by a straight chain of the carbon atoms.
3110 fallout The descent of airborne solid or liquid particles to the ground, which occurs when the speed at which they fall due to gravity exceeds that of any upward motion of the air surrounding them.
3113 fallow area Land area normally used for crop production but left unsown for one or more growing seasons.
3115 fallow land Arable land not under rotation that is set at rest for a period of time ranging from one to five years before it is cultivated again, or land usually under permanent crops, meadows or pastures, which is not being used for that purpose for a period of at least one year. Arable land which is normally used for the cultivation of temporary crops but which is temporarily used for grazing is included.
3117 family A group comprising parents, offsprings and others closely related or associated with them.
3119 family planning The control of the number of children in a family and of the intervals between them, especially by the use of contraceptives.
312 aliphatic hydrocarbon Hydrocarbons having an open chain of carbon atoms, whether normal or forked, saturated or unsaturated.
3120 famine A severe shortage of food, as through crop failure or over population. It may be due to poor harvests following drought, floods, earthquake, war, social conflict, etc.
3122 farm animal Animals reared in farms for working and producing food such as meat, eggs and milk.
3123 farm building The dwelling on a farm as distinguished from utility buildings as a barn, corncrib, milk house.
313 alkali land Any geomorphic area, often a level lake-like plain, with soil containing a high percentage of mineral salts, located especially in arid regions.
3130 farm Any tract of land or building used for agricultural purposes, such as for raising crops and livestock.
3133 fast traffic
3138 fauna The entire animal life of a given region, habitat or geological stratum.
3143 federal authority The power of a central government agency or its administrators to carry out the terms of the law creating the agency as well as to administer and implement regulations, laws and government policies.
3144 federal government A system in which a country or nation formed by a union or confederation of independent states is governed by a central authority or organization.
3147 federal law A binding rule or body of rules established by a government that has been constituted as a union of independent political units or states.
3149 fee A charge fixed by law for services of public officers or for use of a privilege under control of government.
3151 feeding of animals The act and effect of supplying animals with food.
3154 fen Waterlogged, spongy ground containing alkaline decaying vegetation, characterized by reeds, that may develop into peat. It sometimes occurs in the sinkholes of karst region.
3159 fermentation Any enzymatic transformation of organic substrates, especially carbohydrates, generally accompanied by the evolution of gas; a physiological counterpart of oxidation, permitting certain organisms to live and grow in the absence of air; used in various industrial processes for the manufacture of products, such as alcohols, acids, and cheese by the action of yeasts, molds, and bacteria; alcoholic fermentation is the best-known example. Also known as zymosis.
3162 fern Any of a large number of vascular plants composing the division Polypodiophyta, without flowers and fruits.
3169 fertiliser Substance added to soil for the purpose of promoting plant life, usually containing nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus, e.g. manure, guano, rock phosphates.
3171 fertiliser law
3174 fibre An extremely long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured threadlike object from which yarns are spun to be woven into textiles.
3175 fibreglass A material made from small fibres of glass twisted together, which is used for keeping buildings warm, or a plastic strengthened by these fibres and used for making structures such as the outsides of cars and boats.
3176 field A limited area of land with grass or crops growing on it, which is usually surrounded by fences or closely planted bushes when it is part of a farm.
3177 field damage A decline in the productivity of an area of land or in its ability to support natural ecosystems or types of agriculture. Degradation may be caused by a variety of factors, including inappropriate land management techniques, soil erosion, salinity, flooding, clearing, pests, pollution, climatic factors, or progressive urbanization.
3178 field experiment Experiment carried out on a substance or on an organism in the open air as opposed to in a laboratory.
3179 field study Scientific study made in the open air to collect information that can not be obtained in a laboratory.
3181 filling material Any substance used to fill the holes and irregularities in planed or sanded surfaces so as to decrease the porosity of the surface for finish coatings.
3182 filling station A place where petrol and other supplies for motorists are sold.
3183 film A motion picture; a thin flexible strip of cellulose coated with a photographic emission, used to make negatives and transparencies.
3184 filter A porous material for separating suspended particulate matter from liquids by passing the liquid through the pores in the filter and sieving out the solids.
3186 filter cake Accumulated solids, wet or dry, generated by any filtration process, including accumulation on fabric filters in air filtering processes, or accumulation of wet solids in liquid filtering processes.
319 alkali soil Soil that contains sufficient exchangeable sodium to interfere with water penetration and crop growth, either with or without appreciable quantities of soluble salts.
3190 filtration Separation of suspended particles from a liquid, gas, etc., by the action of a filter.
3192 final storage A system where inert materials, which are not to be mobilized by natural processes even for long time periods, are confined by three barriers: the natural impermeable surroundings, an artificial barrier (such as liner) which can be controlled and, most important, the inert material itself. The concept of final storage includes the possibility to mine the materials in the future if such materials are sufficiently "clean" (mono-landfills) and if it becomes economic to mine such ores.
3194 finances The monetary resources or revenue of a government, company, organization or individual.
3195 financial assistance Help and support provided on matters concerning money.
3196 financial compensation The financial reparations that a claimant seeks or a court awards for injuries sustained or property harmed by another.
3197 financial contribution Something given, including any form of income or price support; individual investor's monetary offering or contribution to common fund or stock; government agency's or lending aid agency's subsidy, grant, or other contribution to help bolster an economy.
3199 financial instrument A generic term that refers to the many different forms of financing a business may use. For example - loans, shares, and bonds are all considered financing instruments.
3200 financial law
3201 financial market A place or institution in which buyers and sellers meet and trade monetary assets, including stocks, bonds, securities and money.
3205 financing Procurement of monetary resources or credit to operate a business or acquire assets.
3207 fine A pecuniary punishment or penalty imposed by lawful tribunal upon person convicted of crime or misdemeanor.
3209 fine dust Air-borne solid particles, originating from human activity and natural sources, such as wind-blown soil and fires, that eventually settle through the force of gravity, and can cause injury to human and other animal respiratory systems through excessive inhalation.
3212 fire The state of combustion in which inflammable material burns, producing heat, flames and often smoke.
3218 fire precaution Measure, action or installation implemented in advance to avert the possibility of any unexpected and potentially harmful combustion of materials.
3219 fireproofing agent A chemical used as a coating for or a component of a combustible material to reduce or eliminate a tendency to burn; used with textiles, plastics, rubbers, paints, and other materials.
322 alkane Paraffins. A homologous series of saturated hydrocarbons having the general formula CnH2n+2. Their systematic names end in -ane. They are chemically inert, stable, and flammable. The first four members of the series (methane, ethane, propane, butane) are gases at ordinary temperatures; the next eleven are liquids, and form the main constituents of paraffin oil; the higher members are solids. Paraffin waxs consists mainly of higher alkanes.
3220 fire protection All necessary precautions to see that fire is not initiated, by ensuring that all necessary fire fighting apparatus is in good order and available for use if fire should break out, and by ensuring that personnel are properly trained and drilled in fighting fire.
3225 fire safety requirement Rules to be followed and safety systems to be adopted for preventing or fighting fire.
3226 fire service Technical organisation with trained personnel for dealing with fires and other incidents and for co-operating in their prevention.
3229 firing The process of applying fire or heat, as in the hardening or glazing of ceramics.
3232 firm A commercial partnership of two or more persons, especially when incorporated.
3236 fish disease
3237 fishery The industry of catching, processing and selling fish.
3238 fisheries management The administration and handling of aspects of the fishing industry, including the catching, processing and selling of fish.
3241 fishery resource
3243 fishery economics The production, distribution, and consumption of fish and seafood and all financial aspects of the fishing and seafood industry.
3246 fishery policy Common Fisheries Policy which covers all fishing activities, the farming of living aquatic resources, and their processing and marketing, on the legal basis of Article 39 of the Treaty of Rome. It was agreed between members of the European Community in 1983. It lays down annual catch limits for major species of fish, a 12-mile exclusive fishing zone for each state, and an equal-access zone of 200 nautical miles from its coast within which any member state is allowed to fish.
3252 fish Cold-blooded aquatic vertebrates.
3254 fish farming Raising of fish in inland waters, estuaries or coastal waters.
3256 fishing The attempt to catch fish or other aquatic animal with a hook or with nets, traps, etc.
326 alkyl compound Compound containing one or more alkyl radicals.
3260 fishing industry Industry for the handling, processing, and packing of fish or shellfish for market or shipment.
3261 fishing law Rules concerning fishing activities; in international law the matter is ruled by the 1958 Geneva Convention.
3263 fishing preserve Limited portion of a water body where angling is allowed.
3266 fishing vessel
3269 fish kill Fish diseases observed in the past three decades and which have been attributed to pollution include: haemorrhages; tumours; fin rot; deformed fins; and missing scales and tails. In industrialized countries, increasing numbers of fish are deemed inedible. Many small kills are not noticed or are not reported, and large kills are often not included because of insufficient information to determine whether the kills were caused by pollution or by natural factors. Low dissolved oxygen levels resulting from excessive sewage is one of the leading causes. The second most common cause is pesticides.
3273 fish stock Quantity of fish held for future use.
3274 fish toxicity
3277 fitting (plumbing) Plumbing equipment in a building.
3278 fixed schedule of charges
3281 flag of convenience Practice of registering a merchant vessel with a country that has favourable (i.e. less restrictive ) safety requirements, registration fees, etc.
3282 flaring 1) Flares use open flames during normal and/or emergency operations to combust hazardous gaseous. The system has no special features to control temperature or time of combustion; however, supplemental fuel may be required to sustain the combustion. Historically, flares have been used to dispose of waste gases in the oil and gas industry and at wastewater treatment plants having anaerobic digestors. Regulation for thermal destruction of hazardous wastes limit the practical use of flaring to combustion of relatively simple hydrocarbons, such as methane from digesters or landfill gas collection systems. 2) A control device that burns hazardous materials to prevent their release into the environment; may operate continuously or intermittently, usually on top a stack.
3283 rapid test Tests performed in the medical field whose results are available very quickly.
3287 flavouring A substance, such as an extract or a spice, that imparts flavor.
3288 flea Any of the wingless insects composing the order Siphonaptera; most are ectoparasites of mammals and birds.
329 allergen Any antigen, such as pollen, a drug, or food, that induces an allergic state in humans or animals.
3291 flexible approach to environmental protection Plans, referred to in various rules as emissions averaging, or flexible compliance plans, allow facilities to undercontrol some emission points that are too costly to control to mandated levels as long as these units are balanced by overcontrolling other emission units that are more cost-effective to control.
3294 flocculant A reagent added to a dispersion of solids in a liquid to bring together the fine particles to form flocs.
3295 flocculation A process of contact and adhesion whereby the particles of a dispersed substance form large clusters or the aggregation of particles in a colloid to form small lumps, which then settle out.
3298 flood An unusual accumulation of water above the ground caused by high tide, heavy rain, melting snow or rapid runoff from paved areas.
3300 flood control Measures taken to prevent or reduce harm caused by an unusual accumulation of water above the ground, often involving the construction of reservoirs and channeling structures.
3301 flooding A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of normally dry land areas from the overflow of inland and/or tidal waters, and/or the unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source. A great flow along a watercourse or a flow causing inundation of lands not normally covered by water.
3305 flora (biology) The plant life characterizing a specific geographic region or environment.
3307 flora restoration The process of returning plant ecosystems and habitats to their original conditions.
3308 flotation A process used to separate particulate solids by causing one group of particles to float; utilizes differences in surface chemical properties of the particles, some of which are entirely wetted by water, others are not.
3311 flow The forward continuous movement of a fluid through closed or open channels or conduits.
3312 flower The reproductive structure of angiosperm plants, consisting of stamens and carpels surrounded by petals and sepals all borne on the receptacle.
3313 flowering plant Plants capable of producing conspicuous flowers.
3315 flow field The velocity and the density of a fluid as functions of position and time.
3316 flowing water Moving waters like rivers and streams.
3319 flue gas The gaseous combustion product generated by a furnace and often exhausted through a chimney (flue).
332 allergy A condition of abnormal sensitivity in certain individuals to contact with substances such as proteins, pollens, bacteria, and certain foods. This contact may result in exaggerated physiologic responses such as hay fever, asthma, and in severe enough situations, anaphylactic shock.
3322 fluidics A control technology that employs fluid dynamic phenomena to perform sensing, control, information, processing, and actuation functions without the use of moving mechanical parts.
3324 fluidisation A roasting process in which finely divided solids are suspended in a rising current of air (or other fluid), producing a fluidized bed; used in the calcination of various materials, in the coal industry, etc.
3325 fluidised bed 1) A system for burning solid carbonaceous fuel efficiently and at a relatively low temperature, thus minimizing the emission of pollutants. The fuel is crushed to very small particles or a powder and mixed with particles of an inert material. The mixture is fed into a bed through which air is pumped vertically upwards, agitating the particles so they behave like a fluid. The forced circulation of air and the small size and separation of fuel particles ensures efficient burning. 2) A bed of finely divided solid through which air or a gas is blown in a controlled manner so that it behaves as a liquid.
3328 fluoridation The addition of the fluorine ion to municipal water supplies in a final concentration of 0.8-1.6 ppm (parts per million) to help prevent dental caries in children. addition of fluor(ide) (ions) to (drinking) water
3334 fluorine A gaseous or liquid chemical element; a member of the halide family, it is the most electronegative element and the most chemically energetic of the nonmetallic elements; highly toxic, corrosive, and flammable; used in rocket fuels and as a chemical intermediate.
3340 fluvial resource Any source of supply derived from a river, particularly its water, which is collected, stored and treated, then distributed for domestic, industrial, farm and other uses.
3341 river transport Transportation of goods or persons by means of ships travelling on rivers.
3342 fly ash Finely divided particles of ash that are entrained in flue gases resulting from the combustion of fuel or other material. The particles of ash may contain incompletely burned fuel and other pollutants.
3343 foaming agent Substances which make it possible to form a homogenous dispersion of a gaseous phase in a liquid or solid medium.
3345 fodder Bulk feed for livestock, especially hay, straw, etc.
3347 fog Water droplets or, rarely, ice crystals suspended in the air in sufficient concentration to reduce visibility appreciably.
3348 mist Fine water droplets suspended in the air, which reduce visibility. Usually mists form at night, when the temperature falls because the sky is clear. If visibility falls below 1,000 metres, the mist becomes a fog.
335 allocation The assignment or allotment of resources to various uses in accord with a stated goal or policy.
3350 foliage The green leaves of a plant.
3354 food A material that can be ingested and utilized by the organism as a source of nutrition and energy.
3356 food additive Substances that have no nutritive value in themselves (or are not being used as nutrients) which are added to food during processing to improve colour, texture, flavour, or keeping qualities.
3358 food chain A sequence of organisms on successive trophic levels within a community, through which energy is transferred by feeding; energy enters the food chain during fixation by primary producers (mainly green plants) and passes to the herbivores (primary consumers) and then to the carnivores (secondary and tertiary consumers).
336 allocation plan The formulation and application of such measures as laws, economic plans, urbanism, etc., to ensure a balance between the population's needs and the country's resources.
3360 food colourant Any digestible substance, usually a synthetic dye, which manufacturers add to food to give it color and enhance its appearance.
3362 food commerce An interchange of any food commodity or related food products, usually on a large scale.
3365 food contamination
3367 food hygiene That part of the science of hygiene that deals with the principles and methods of sanitation applied to the quality of foodstuffs, to their processing, preparation, conservation and consumption by man.
3368 food industry The commercial production and packaging of foods that are fabricated by processing, by combining various ingredients, or both.
3370 food irradiation The most recent addition to food preservation technologies is the use of ionizing radiation, which has some distinct advantages over conventional methods. With irradiation, foods can be treated after packaging, thus eliminating post-processing contamination. In addition, foods are preserved in a fresh state and can be kept longer without noticeable loss of quality. Food irradiation leaves no residues, and changes in nutritional value due to irradiation are comparable with those produced by other processes. Irradiation is the process of applying high energy to a material, such as food, to sterilize or extend its shelf-life by killing microorganisms, insects and other pests residing on it. Sources of ionizing radiation that have been used include gamma rays, electron beams and X-rays. Gamma rays are produced by radioactive isotopes such as Cobalt-60. Electron beams are produced by linear accelerators, which themselves are powered by electricity. The dose applied to a product is the most important factor of the process. At high doses, food is essentially sterilized, just as occurs in canning. Products so treated can be stored at room temperature almost indefinitely. Controversial and banned in some countries.
3372 food pollutant Potentially harmful substances in any food consumed by humans, or other animals, including inorganic and organic chemicals, viruses and bacteria.
3375 food preservation Processing designed to protect food from spoilage caused by microbes, enzymes, and autooxidation.
3376 food processing industry A commercial establishment in which food is manufactured or packaged for human consumption.
3378 food production (agriculture)
3380 food quality
3381 food requirement The minimum food ration required for satisfying the essential needs of an organism.
3384 food science The applied science which deals with the chemical, biochemical, physical, physiochemical, and biological properties of foods.
3387 food storage Stock of food kept in storage as a national measure to provide security against fluctuations in food supply.
3388 foodstuff A substance that can be used or prepared for use as food.
3391 food technology The application of science and engineering to the refining, manufacturing, and handling of foods; many food technologists are food scientists rather than engineers.
3392 food transport
3395 footpath A narrow path for walkers only.
3396 forage contamination Introduction of hazardous or poisonous substances such as arsenic or lead into, or onto, fodder for animals. The animals consume the contaminated feed and can become sick and may die.
3397 forage law
340 alloy Any of a large number of substances having metallic properties and consisting of two or more elements; with few exceptions, the components are usually metallic elements.
3400 forecast An estimate or prediction of a future condition.
3401 foreclosure To shut out, to bar, to destroy an equity of redemption. A termination of all rights of the mortgagor or his grantee in the property covered by the mortgage. The process by which a mortgagor of real or personal property, or other owner of property subject to a lien, is deprived of his interest therein. Procedure by which mortgaged property is sold on default of mortgagor in satisfaction of mortgage debt. In common usage, refers to enforcement of lien, trust deed, or mortgage in any method provided by law.
3402 foreign economic relations Dealing in economic or monetary matters with foreign countries.
3404 foreign policy The diplomatic policy of a nation in its interactions with other nations.
3405 foreign trade Trade between countries and firms belonging to different countries.
3406 forest A vegetation community dominated by trees and other woody shrubs, growing close enough together that the tree tops touch or overlap, creating various degrees of shade on the forest floor. It may produce benefits such as timber, recreation, wildlife habitat, etc.
341 alluvion An overflowing; an inundation or flood, especially when the water is charged with much suspended material.
3410 forest conservation
3411 forest cover destruction Destruction of forests is carried out in many countries in order to provide new land for agricultural or livestock purposes. It is often done without factors such as climate and topography having been sufficiently studied and on lands where slope nature of the soil or other physiographic characteristics clearly indicate that the land involved is suitable only for forest. Although these practices may lead to a temporary increase in productivity, there are also many indications that in the long run there is usually a decrease in productivity per unit of surface and that erosion and irreversible soil deterioration often accompany this process. Many factors contribute to forest cover destruction: timber production, clearance for agriculture, cutting for firewood and charcoal, fires, droughts, strip mining, pollution, urban development, population pressures, and warfare.
3414 forest damage Reduction of tree population in forests caused by acidic precipitation, forest fires, air pollution, deforestation, pests and diseases of trees, wildlife, etc.
3416 forest ecosystem Any forest environment, in which plants and animals interact with the chemical and physical features of the environment, in which they live.
3419 forest fire A conflagration in or destroying large wooded areas having a thick growth of trees and plants.
342 alpha radiation A stream of alpha particles which are ejected from many radioactive substances having a penetrating power of a few cm in air but can be stopped by a thin piece of paper.
3423 forest industry A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of establishments is engaged in the management of an extensive area of woodland, often to produce products and benefits such as timber, wildlife habitat, clean water, biodiversity and recreation.
3425 forest management Planning of forest utilization for wood production, conservation purposes, fauna and flora protection, recreation and water supply.
3426 forest pest Organisms that damage trees.
3430 forest policy A course of action adopted and pursued by government or some other organization, which seeks to preserve or protect an extensive area of woodland, often to produce products and benefits such as timber, wildlife habitat, clean water, biodiversity and recreation.
3431 forest production Forests produce a range of products including firewood and charcoal, lumber, paper, and crops such as coffee, oil palm, and rubber. With careful planning of growth and harvesting, wood and other forest products are, in principle, renewable resources. But achieving renewability takes time - often decades, sometimes centuries. Without careful management, pressure for short-term exploitation can lead to tree removal, soil degradation, and conversion of woodland to other uses. Consumption of forest resources can lead to environmental problems as well as loss of critical habitat and species.
3432 forest product Any material afforded by a forest for commercial use, such as tree products and forage.
3435 forest reserve Forest area set aside for the purpose of protecting certain fauna and flora, or both.
3437 forest resource assessment
3438 forest resource Forest resources consist of two separate but closely related parts: the forest land and the trees (timber) on that land.
3439 forestry The management of forest lands for wood, forages, water, wildlife, and recreation.
3440 forestry economics The production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services from the industry involved with the process of establishing and managing forests.
3441 forestry law A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to regulate any extensive area of woodland, for the protection and preservation of game, timber and other forest resources.
3442 forestry legislation A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to regulate the use and conservation of wooded areas, most often those owned by the government itself.
3444 forestry practice The farming of trees to ensure a continuing supply of timber and other forest products. Foresters care for existing trees, protecting them from fire, pests and diseases, and felling where trees are overcrowded or dying and when ready for cropping. They also plant new areas (afforestation) and replant felled areas (reafforestation).
3455 form of government Form of authority in which an individual or group of individuals wield power over the majority.
3460 fossil Any remains, trace, or imprint of a plant or animal that has been preserved in the Earth's crust since some past geologic or prehistoric time.
3462 fossil fuel The energy-containing materials which were converted over many thousands of years from their original form of trees, plants and other organisms after being buried in the ground. Physical and chemical processes occurred in the Earth's crust that changed them into coal, peat, oil or natural gas.
3465 fouling growth The adhesion of different marine organisms to the underwater parts of ships, causing the ships to loose speed.
3469 four stroke engine An internal combustion engine whose cycle is completed in four piston strokes; includes a suction stroke, compression stroke, expansion stroke, and exhaust stroke.
3474 framework legislation A body of rules prescribed by a government, often composed in a series of inter-related parts, to establish or lay the foundation for a new project, agency or organizational structure.
3477 access to information The ability, right and permission to approach and use, or the general availability of resources that convey knowledge.
3481 freight transport Transportation of goods by ship, aircraft or other vehicles.
3483 freon Trade name for a group of polyhalogenated hydrocarbons containing fluorine and chlorine; an example is trichlorofluoromethane.
3485 freshwater Water having a relatively low mineral content, generally less than 500 mg/l of dissolved solids.
3487 freshwater biology The scientific study or the characteristic life processes of living organisms found in a natural body of water that does not contain significant amounts of dissolved salts and minerals, such as a lake or river.
3488 freshwater degradation Pollution immediately or eventually involves the hydrological cycle of the earth, because even pollutants emitted into the air and those present in the soil are washed out by precipitation. Water is considered polluted when it is altered in composition or condition so that it becomes less suitable for any or all of the functions and purposes for which it would be suitable in its natural state. This definition includes changes in the physical, chemical and biological properties of water, or such discharges of liquid, gaseous or solid substances into water as will or are likely to create nuisances or render such water harmful to public health, safety or welfare, or to domestic, commercial, industrial, agricultural, fish or other aquatic life. It also includes changes in temperatures, due to the discharge of hot water.
3489 freshwater ecosystem The living organisms and nonliving materials of an inland aquatic environment.
349 alternative material Materials employed in the place of others which are more dangerous for the environment, such as phosphate substitutes in detergents.
3491 freshwater monitoring
3492 freshwater organism Organisms which live in freshwater.
3493 freshwater pollution The direct or indirect human alteration of the biological, physical, chemical or radiological integrity of freshwater.
3494 freshwater resource The network of rivers, lakes, and other surface waters that supply water for food production and other essential human systems.
3495 frog Any insectivorous anuran amphibian of the family Ranidae, such as Rana temporaria of Europe, having a short squat tailless body with a moist smooth skin and very long hind legs specialized for hopping.
3496 frost A deposit of interlocking ice crystals formed by direct sublimation on objects.
3498 fruit A fully matured plant ovary with or without other floral or shoot parts united with it at maturity.
3499 fruit cultivation Cultivation of fruit trees for home consumption or on a commercial basis.
3502 fruit tree Any tree that bears edible fruit.
3505 fuel Solid, liquid, or gaseous material such as gas, gasoline, oil, coal or wood, used to produce heat or power by burning.
3506 fuel additive Substance (such as tetraethyl lead) which is added to petrol to prevent knocking.
3507 fuel alcohol Alternative source of energy for motor vehicles. It is produced by fermentation of sugar cane by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
3509 fuel composition
351 alternative technology Technology that, as an alternative to resource-intensive and wasteful industry, aims to utilize resources sparingly, with minimum damage to the environment, at affordable cost and with a possible degree of control over the processes.
3510 fuel consumption The amount of fuel utilized.
3512 fuel oil A liquid product burned to generate heat, exclusive of oils with a flash point below 38°C; includes heating oils, stove oils, furnace oils, bunker fuel oils.
3516 fuel tank installation The operating, fuel-storage component of a fuel system.
3517 fuel wood Wood used for heating.
3518 fume Solids in the air that have been generated by the condensation of vapors, chemical reactions or sublimation (a direct change from solid to gas). Often metallic oxides or metals, these particles are less than 1 micrometer in diameter and may be toxic.
352 alumina A natural or synthetic oxide of aluminum widely distributed in nature, often found as a constituent part of clays, feldspars, micas and other minerals, and as a major component of bauxite.
3521 fumigation The use of a chemical compound in a gaseous state to kill insects, nematodes, arachnids, rodents, weeds, and fungi in confined or inaccessible locations; also used to control weeds, nematodes, and insects in the field.
3522 functional substance A substance from the point of view of its function or purpose, for example a painting agent or a preserving substance.
3524 soil function The main soil function is participation in the material transformation and migrating processes occurring in the natural environment on which the functioning of ecosystems depends. The most active participants in the occurring processes are microorganisms and invertebrates, whose activity, different variety, complex structure, and abundance accurately reflect the soil type and its characteristics: so they are important indicators of ecological stability. The variety of soil organisms determine its self-regulatory and self-cleaning capacity.
3528 mycete Nucleated usually filamentous, sporebearing organisms devoid of chlorophyll.
3529 fungus Nucleated usually filamentous, sporebearing organisms devoid of chlorophyll.
353 aluminium A light white metal, ductile and malleable, and a good conductor of electricity. It occurs widely in nature in clays and is the third most abundant element in the Earth's crust. It is extracted mainly from bauxite by electrolysis of a molten mixture of purified bauxite and cryolite. The metal and its alloys are used for aircraft, cooking utensils, electrical apparatus, and for many other purposes where its light weight is an advantage. Aluminium became implicated as an environmental health hazard in the 1980s on two counts. Biomedical scientists looking for possible causes of Alzheimer's disease, the premature senility indicated by loss of memory and confusion, found a circumstantial link with aluminium. The theory is a controversial one. Al
3530 fungicide Chemicals used to kill or halt the development of fungi that cause plant disease, such as: storage rot; seedling diseases; root rots; vascular wilts; leaf blights, rusts, smuts and mildews, and viral diseases. These can be controlled by the early and continued application of selected fungicides that either kill the pathogens or restrict their development.
3533 fur The hair-covered, dressed pelt of such a mammal, used in the making of garments and as trimming or decoration.
3535 fur animal Animals bred and slaughtered for their fur.
3536 furan A colourless flammable toxic liquid heterocyclic compound, used in the synthesis of nylon.
3538 furnace A structure or apparatus in which heat is produced by the combustion of fuel, often to warm houses, melt metals, produce steam and bake pottery.
3539 furniture The movable articles in a room or an establishment that make it fit for living or working.
354 aluminium container A can or box made of aluminium in which material is held or carried.
3540 furniture industry
3542 furriery The business or trade of dressed furs and garments made from the coats of certain animals.
3548 gallinacean The order of birds that includes grouse, ptarmigan, capercaillie, partridges, pheasants, quails, turkeys and peacocks. These are mainly grain-eating, heavy-bodied, ground-nesting birds, capable of only short, rapid flights. The cocks are usually more colourful than the hens.
355 aluminium content Amount of aluminium contained in a solution.
3550 galvanisation The act of coating iron or steel with zinc, either by immersion in a bath of molten zinc or by deposition from a solution of zinc sulphate, to give protection against corrosion.
3553 game (animals) Wild animals, including birds and fish, hunted for sport, food or profit.
3554 gamma radiation Radiation of gamma rays.
3559 garden A piece of land next to a house where flowers and other plants are grown and which often has an area of grass.
356 aluminium industry A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the mining and processing of aluminum.
3562 garden waste Natural organic matter discarded from gardens and yards including leaves, grass clippings, prunings, brush and stumps.
3564 garrigue Mediterranean bush consisting of low evergreen shrubs and abundant herbaceous plants.
3566 gas A substance that continues to occupy in a continuous manner the whole of the space in which it is placed, however large or small this place is mad, the temperature remaining constant.
3567 gas chromatography A separation technique involving passage of a gaseous moving phase through a column containing a fixed phase; it is used principally as a quantitative analytical technique for volatile compounds.
3570 gas company Company charged with the production and distribution of gas for domestic use.
3571 gas engine An internal combustion engine that uses gaseous fuel.
3572 gaseous air pollutant Uncondensed or volatile gases, usually comprised of chemical compounds, discharged to the atmosphere.
3577 gaseous state State of matter in which the matter concerned occupies the whole of its container irrespective of its quantity.
3578 treatment of gases Gas is treated before it can be supplied to the marketplace. The extent to which gas needs to be processed will depend on its quality, the amount of associated impurities such as water, carbon dioxide and sulphur compounds, and the ultimate end-use for the gas. Common gaseous impurities found in natural gas are carbon dioxide and sulphur compounds. Both have an acidic reaction and are given the generic name 'acid gases'. These gases can be removed by a number of commercial processes, using either a physical or a chemical solvent. Physical solvent processes tend to be used where gas pressures are high and for gases with lower levels of propane and heavier hydrocarbons.
3581 gasification 1) Any chemical or heat process used to convert a substance to a gas. 2) The production of gaseous fuels by reacting hot carbonaceous materials with air, steam or oxygen. The process takes place at high temperature. The gasification product is a mixture of combustible gases and tar compounds, together with particles and water vapour. Depending on the gasification method, the proportion of components varies, but common to all the processes is that the gas has to be purified before it can be used directly in a gas engine or a gas turbine.
3582 gas liquefaction Conversion of a gas to the liquid phase by cooling or compression.
3585 gas mixture
3586 gas network Interconnected system of pipes for the distribution and supply of gas.
3587 gasohol A mixture of 80% or 90% petrol with 20% or 10% ethyl alcohol, for use as a fuel in internal combustion engines.
3589 gasoline engine An internal combustion engine that uses a mixture of air and gasoline vapour as a fuel.
3591 gas pipeline A long pipe, especially underground, used to transport gas over long distances.
3593 gas powered plant Power station which burns gas, as opposed to a coal-fired station or nuclear power station.
3594 gas purification Removal of pollutants or contaminants from waste incineration or other combustion processes.
3595 vapour recovery system Gas feedback device: while refuelling gasoline vapors are sucked off and led back again into the storage tank.
3596 gas reservoir Large tank for storing coal gas or natural gas.
3599 gas supply The provision and storage of any fuel gas, or the amount of any fuel gas stored, for the use of a municipality, or other fuel gas user.
36 accumulation in body tissues
360 alveolus A tiny, thin-walled, capillary-rich sac in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place. Also called air sac.
3600 gastropod Any mollusc of the class Gastropoda, typically having a flattened muscular foot for locomotion and a head that bears stalked eyes.
3604 gaswork Place where gas, especially coal gas, is made.
3611 gender issue A point, matter or dispute concerning the capabilities, societal roles or other differences and divisions between women and men, especially the relative weight of biological and physical difference versus culture and socialization as a cause of those distinctions.
3613 gene bank Storehouses of seeds or vegetative tissue, kept in low humidity and temperature, to help maintain genetic diversity. Sometimes known as seed banks or germ plasm banks. their contents mostly originate from a wide range of primitive strains and wild crop varieties. The International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR), which was established in 1974, promotes the collection, documentation, evaluation, conservation and eventual use of genetic resources of significant plant species. Gene banks are the subject of international controversy because they contain seeds that have mostly been acquired from the developing countries by the industrially rich countries, where they have been used in breeding programmes to develop new strains. Instead of taking decades over a traditional plant breeding programme by fertilization, it is now possible to manipulate directly the genes of plants, creating genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which are plants modified to give a higher resistance to disease and improved growth and yields and, therefore, increase the profit of the plant breeder and farmer.
3614 general administrative order An administrative mandate outlining the process by which a concept, plan, decree or law is to be put into actual practice by a specific organization or government agency.
3615 general chemistry The study of the elements and the compounds they form.
3617 gene A unit of heredity composed of DNA occupying a fixed position on a chromosome. A gene may determine a characteristic of an individual by specifying a polypeptide chain that forms a protein or part of a protein (structural gene); or repress such operation (repressor gene).
3620 genetic diversity The variation between individuals and between populations within a species.
3621 genetic effect Inheritable change, chiefly mutations produced by chemical substances, herbicides, radiations, etc.
3624 genetic engineering 1) The complex of techniques for the production of new genes and the alteration of the structure of the chromosomes to produce effects beneficial to man, in agriculture and medicine. 2) The intentional production of new genes and alteration of genomes by the substitution or addition of new genetic material.
3625 genetic engineering legislation
3628 genetic information The information for protein synthesis contained in the nucleotide sequences of the DNA polynucleotide chain.
363 amalgam A solution of a metal in mercury.
3630 genetic modification Inheritable changes produced by ionizing radiation, exposure to certain chemicals, ingestion of some medication and from other causes.
3632 genetic resource The gene pool in natural and cultivated stocks of organisms that are available for human exploitation. It is desirable to maintain as diverse a range of organisms as possible, particularly of domesticated cultivars and their ancestors, in order to maintain a wide genetic base. The wider the genetic base, the greater the capacity for adaptation to particular environmental conditions.
3633 genetics The science that is concerned with the study of biological inheritance.
3634 genetic variation Change in one or more phenotypic characteristics, due to gene mutation or rearrangement, environmental effects, etc.
3638 geodesy A subdivision of geophysics which includes determination of the size and shape of the earth, the earth's gravitational field, and the location of points fixed to the earth's crust in an earth-referred coordinate system.
3640 geogenic factor Geogenic factors are those which originate in the soil, as opposed to those of anthropic origin (anthropogenic).
3645 geographic information system An organized collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data, and personnel designed to efficiently capture, store, update, manipulate, analyze, and display all forms of geographically referenced information that can be drawn from different sources, both statistical and mapped.
3646 geography The study of the natural features of the earth's surface, comprising topography, climate, soil, vegetation, etc. and man's response to them.
3647 geological disaster Disasters caused by movements and deformation of the earth's crust.
3648 geological process Dynamic actions or events that occur at the Earth's surface due to application of natural forces resulting from gravity, temperature changes, freezing and thawing, chemical reactions, seismic shaking, and the agencies of wind and moving water, ice and snow. Where and when a force exceeds the strength of the earth material, the material is changed by deformation, translocation, or chemical reactions.
3650 geology The study or science of the earth, its history, and its life as recorded in the rocks; includes the study of geologic features of an area, such as the geometry of rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation.
3652 geomorphic process The physical and chemical interactions between the Earth's surface and the natural forces acting upon it to produce landforms. The processes are determined by such natural environmental variables as geology, climate, vegetation and baselevel, to say nothing of human interference. The nature of the process and the rate at which it operates will be influenced by a change in any of these variables.
3654 geomorphology The study of the classification, description, nature, origin, and development of present landforms and their relationships to underlying structures, and of the history of geologic changes as recorded by these surface features.
3655 geophysics The physics of the earth and its environment, that is, earth, air and space.
3657 geotechnology The application of scientific methods and engineering techniques to the exploitation and use of natural resources.
3658 geothermal energy An energy produced by tapping the earth's internal heat. At present, the only available technologies to do this are those that extract heat from hydrothermal convection systems, where water or steam transfer the heat from the deeper part of the earth to the areas where the energy can be tapped. The amount of pollutants found in geothermal vary from area to area but may contain arsenic, boron, selenium, lead, cadmium, and fluorides. They also may contain hydrogen sulphide, mercury, ammonia, radon, carbon dioxide, and methane.
3661 germ 1) A pathogenic micro-organism. 2) Living substance capable of developing into an organ, part, or organism as a whole; a primordium.
3663 germination The beginning or the process of development of a spore or seed.
3664 germ plasm The hereditary material transmitted to the offspring via the gametes.
367 Americas The landmasses and islands of North America, South America, Mexico, and Central America included in the Western Hemisphere.
3673 glacier Slow moving masses of ice which have accumulated either on mountains or in polar regions. They are found where warm, moist air or warm water meets cold air or water. They move, influenced by the force of gravity and the pressure of the ice, above the underlying slush layers and slide downhill, eventually melting at lower levels to form rivers or reaching sea-level, where they form ice shelves or fall into the water as icebergs.
3676 glaciology 1) The study of all aspects of snow and ice; the science that treats quantitatively the whole range of processes associated with all forms of solid existing water. 2) The study of existing glaciers and ice sheets, and of their physical properties.
3678 glass A hard, amorphous, inorganic, usually transparent, brittle substance made by fusing silicates, sometimes borates and phosphates, with certain basic oxides and then rapidly cooling to prevent crystallization.
3681 glass industry Industry for the production of glassware.
3686 global aspect Aspects concerning the whole world considered as being closely connected by modern telecommunications and as being interdependent economically, socially and politically.
3687 global convention A worldwide assembly of national, political party or organizational delegates, or the pact or the agreement that arises from such an assembly that forms, often, the preliminary to an international treaty.
3688 Global Environment Facility An international organization established in 1990 to provide practical assistance to governments in achieving environmental improvements. The GEF is managed by the World Bank, which contributes 2/3 of its funds, the remaining 1/3 being controlled by the United Nations Development Programme.
3690 global model Models concerning different aspects of reality which can be applied at global level.
3692 global warming Changes in the surface-air temperature, referred to as the global temperature, brought about by the greenhouse effect which is induced by emission of greenhouse gases into the air.
3694 glossary An alphabetical list of terms concerned with a particular subject, field or area of usage that includes accompanying definitions.
3695 glue A crude, impure, amber-colored form of commercial gelatin of unknown detailed composition produced by the hydrolysis of animal collagen; gelatinizes in aqueous solutions and dries to form a strong, adhesive layer.
3698 goal of individual economic business The aim, purpose, objective, or end for a profit-seeking enterprise engaged in commerce, manufacturing, or a service.
370 Ames test A bioassay developed by Bruce N. Ames in 1974, performed on bacteria to assess the capability of environmental chemicals to cause mutations.
3701 golf A game played on a large open course, the object of which is to hit a ball using clubs, with as few strokes as possible, into each of usually 18 holes.
3705 good management The competent, skillful and successful process of planning, leading and working toward the accomplishment or completion of goals, objectives and mission of an organization or institution.
3712 government advisory body
3714 government building Building for the offices of the main departments of government.
3715 government (cabinet) A body of top government officials appointed to advise the President or the chief executive officer of a country, usually consisting of the heads of government departments or agencies.
3716 government environmental expenditure
3717 government liability A public body's debt or other legal obligation arising out of transactions in the past which must be liquidated, renewed or refunded at some future date.
3718 government policy Any course of action adopted and pursued by a ruling political authority or system, which determines the affairs for a nation, state or region.
372 amine One of a class of organic compounds which can be considered to be derived from ammonia by replacement of one or more hydrogens by organic radicals.
3721 grain Edible, starchy seeds of the grass family (Graminae) usable as food by man and his livestock.
3729 grass A very large and widespread family of Monocotyledoneae, with more than 10.000 species, most of which are herbaceous, but a few are woody. The stems are jointed, the long, narrow leaves originating at the nodes. The flowers are inconspicuous, with a much reduced perianth, and are wind-pollinated or cleistogamous. The fruit in single-seeded, usually a caryopsis. Grasses are the most important of all plants for food.
373 amino acid Organic compounds containing a carboxyl group (-COOH) and an amino group (-NH2). About 30 amino acids are known. They are fundamental constituents of living matter because protein molecules are made up of many amino acid molecules combined together. Amino acids are synthesized by green plants and some bacteria, but some (arginine, histidine, lysine. threonine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, valine, phenylalanine, tryptophane) cannot be synthesized by animals and therefore are essential constituents of their diet. Proteins from specific plants may lack certain amino acids, so a vegetarian diet must include a wide range of plant products.
3730 grass fire A conflagration in or destroying large areas of any vegetation in the Gramineae family as found in fields, meadows, savannas or other grasslands.
3732 grasshopper A plant-eating insect with long back legs that can jump very high and makes a sharp high noise using its back legs or wings.
3733 grassland Grassland cover nearly one-fifth of the Earth's land surface. They include savannah, the prairies of North America, and the steppes of Russia and Central Asia. Grassland ecosystems support thousands of different species, above and below the ground, and have a vital part to play maintaining the ecological balance of the world.
3734 grassland ecosystem The interacting system of the biological communities located in biomes characterized by the dominance of indigenous grasses, grasslike plants and forbs, and their non-living environmental surroundings.
3738 gravel A mixture of rock fragments and pebbles that is coarser than sand.
3739 gravel extraction Obtaining a mixture of coarse sand and small water- worn or pounded stones, (used for paths and roads and as an aggregate) from the earth.
3742 gravel pit A place where gravel is dug out of the ground.
3748 grazing The vegetation on pastures that is available for livestock to feed upon.
375 ammonia A colorless gaseous alkaline compound that is very soluble in water, has a characteristic pungent odour, is lighter than air, and is formed as a result of the decomposition of most nitrogenous organic material. NH3
3754 greenbelt 1) An area of land, not necessarily continuous, near to and sometimes surrounding a large built-up area. The area is kept open by permanent and severe restriction on building. 2) An irrigated, landscaped, and regularly maintained fuelbreak, usually put to some additional use, such as a golf course, park, or playground. 3) A planning designation that mandates the setting aside of otherwise developable lands for the purpose of creating natural or semi-natural open spaces. Greenbelts are usually linear parkways, tracts, or belts of land running through or around urban conurbations. 4) An area or zone of open, semi-rural, low-density land surrounding existing major urban areas, but not necessarily continuous. The zone is to be kept open by permanent and severe restrictions on new development.
3755 green building The self-contained dwelling where man simulates the ways of ecosystems, i.e. his wastes are converted to fuel by anaerobic digestion for methane production and the residues from the digestion are used for growing food. The food residues are composted and/or used for methane production. Solar energy is trapped by the greenhouse effect and used for house, crop and water heating. A windmill would be used for electricity. Thus, given sufficient space, sunshine, rainfall and wind, the ecohouse is in theory a self-contained system recycling its own wastes and using the sun as its energy input.
3756 green corridor Avenues along which wide-ranging animals can travel, plants can propagate, genetic interchange can occur, populations can move in response to environmental changes and natural disasters, and threatened species can be replenished from other areas.
3757 environmental tax An amount of money demanded by a government to finance clean-up, prevention, reduction, enforcement or educational efforts intended to promote ecological integrity and the conservation of natural resources.
3760 greenhouse cultivation Cultivation of plants, especially of out-of-season plants, in glass-enclosed, climate-controlled structures.
3761 greenhouse effect The warming of the Earth's atmosphere caused by the increasing concentration of atmospheric gases, such as water vapour and carbon dioxide. These gases absorb radiation emitted by the Earth, thus slowing down the loss of radiant energy from the Earth back to space.
3763 greenhouse gas A collective expression for those components of the atmosphere that influence the greenhouse effect, namely carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides, ozone, CFCs and water vapour. GHG
3766 green manure Herbaceous plant material plowed into the soil while still green.
3768 green revolution The name given to the widespread development of high-yield strains of wheat, corn and rice during the 1960s and early 1970s. It was more formally known as the Indicative World Plan for Agricultural Development. The revolution came after the Food and Agricultural Organization held the World Food Congress in 1963. A "Freedom from Hunger" campaign was set up with the goal of increasing food supplies and solving the world's hunger problems.
3770 green space A plot of vegetated land separating or surrounding areas of intensive residential or industrial use and devoted to recreation or park uses.
3771 green vegetable A vegetable having the edible parts rich in chlorophyll and forming an important source of vitamins and micronutrients.
3774 grinding To reduce to powder or small fragments.
3777 gross national product Gross domestic product adjusted for foreign transactions, i.e. to the figure for Gross Domestic Product must be added any income accruing to residents of the country arising from investment and other factor earnings abroad and from it must be deducted any income earned in the domestic market by factors owned by foreigners abroad.
378 ammonification Addition of ammonia or ammonia compounds, especially to the soil.
3780 groundwater Water that occupies pores and crevices in rock and soil, below the surface and above a layer of impermeable material. It is free to move gravitationally, either downwards towards the impermeable layer or by following a gradient.
3781 groundwater extraction The process, deliberate or inadvertent, of extracting ground water from a source at a rate so in excess of the replenishment that the ground water level declines persistently, threatening exhaustion of the supply or at least a decline of pumping levels to uneconomic depths.
3784 groundwater pollution Contamination of any water found under the earth's surface by any leaching pollutants, such as inorganic compounds (chlorides, nitrates, heavy metals, etc.), synthetic organic chemicals (pesticides, fertilizers, etc.) and pathogens (bacteria, parasites, etc.).
3785 groundwater protection Precautionary actions, procedures or installations undertaken to prevent or reduce harm to the environmental integrity of fresh water found beneath the earth's surface, usually in aquifers, which supply wells and springs.
3788 group behaviour An observable pattern of activity displayed by persons in and as an aggregate.
379 ammonium The radical NH4+. NH4
38 accumulator A rechargeable device for storing electrical energy in the form of chemical energy, consisting of one or more separate secondary cells.
3800 gulf An inlet of the sea of large areal proportions, more indented than a bay and generally more enclosed.
3805 gymnosperm Any seed-bearing plant of the division Gymnospermae, in which the ovules are borne naked on the surface of the mega sporophylls, which are often arranged in cones.
3806 gypsum A colourless or white mineral used in the building industry and in the manufacture of cement, rubber, paper and plaster of Paris.
3808 habitat 1) The locality in which a plant or animal naturally grows or lives. It can be either the geographical area over which it extends, or the particular station in which a specimen is found. 2) A physical portion of the environment that is inhabited by an organism or population of organisms. A habitat is characterized by a relative uniformity of the physical environment and fairly close interaction of all the biological species involved. In terms of region, a habitat may comprise a desert, a tropical forest, a prairie field, the Arctic Tundra or the Arctic Ocean.
3810 haematology The branch of medical science concerned with diseases of the blood.
3812 hail Precipitation in the form of balls or irregular lumps of ice, always produced by convective clouds, nearly always cumulonimbus.
3815 half-life The time required for one-half the atoms of a given amount of radioactive material to undergo radioactive decay.
3817 haloform A haloalkane, containing three halogen atoms, e.g. iodoform, CHI3; a haloform reaction is a reaction to produce haloforms from a ketone. For example, if propanone is treated with bleaching powder, the chlorinated ketone so formed reacts to form chloroform.
3819 halogenated biphenyl Halogen derivatives of biphenyl.
3820 halogenated hydrocarbon One of a group of halogen derivatives of organic hydrogen and carbon containing compounds; the group includes monohalogen compounds (alkyl or aryl halides) and polyhalogen compounds that contain the same or different halogen atoms.
3821 halogenated phenol Halogen derivatives of phenol.
3822 halogenated pollutant An organic compound bonded with one of the five halogen elements (astatine, bromine, chlorine, fluorine, and iodine). Several of these compounds contribute to reductions in the concentration of ozone in the stratosphere.
3823 halogenated terphenyl
3828 handicraft business The profession, commercial firm or trade involving the production and distribution of articles that are made through the skilled use of one's hands.
3830 handicraft A particular skill performed with the hands.
3834 harbour Area of water next to the coast, often surrounded by thick walls, where ships and boats can be sheltered.
3837 hardness Resistance of a solid to indentation, scratching, abrasion or cutting.
3838 hard-to-dispose-of waste Discarded material, often hazardous or in large volume, for which there is no obvious disposal route.
3842 waste water pollution The impairment of the quality of some medium due to the introduction of spent or used water from a community or industry.
3847 harmonisation of law The process by which two or more states, sometimes under the auspices of an interstate or international organization, change their legislation relevant to some area of common concern to conform their statutes and to facilitate compliance and enforcement across borders.
3849 harvest The amount or measure of the crop gathered in a season.
3852 hazard A physical or chemical agent capable of causing harm to persons, property, animals, plants or other natural resources.
3853 hazard of pollutants Risk or danger to human health, property or the environment posed by the introduction of a harmful substances into the ecosystem.
3854 hazardous substance Any material that poses a threat to human health and/or the environment. Typical hazardous substances are toxic, corrosive, ignitable, explosive, or chemically reactive.
3855 hazardous substances legislation A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to regulate the production, use or clean-up of materials that pose a threat to human health and the environment, particularly materials that are toxic, corrosive, ignitable, explosive or chemically reactive.
3857 hazardous waste dump Disposal facilities where hazardous waste is placed in or on land. Properly designed and operated landfills are lined to prevent leakage and contain systems to collect potentially contaminated surface water run-off.
3858 hazardous waste Any waste or combination of wastes with the potential to damage human health, living organisms or the environment. Hazardous wastes usually require special handling and disposal procedures which are regulated by national and international laws.
3859 hazardous working material A poison, corrosive agent, flammable substance, explosive, radioactive chemical, or any other material which can endanger human health or well-being if handled improperly.
3860 haze Reduced visibility in the air as a result of condensed water vapour, dust, etc., in the atmosphere.
3864 headland (farm) A strip of land left at the end of a furrow in a field in order to facilitate the turning of the plough.
3865 health A state of dynamic equilibrium between an organism and its environment in which all functions of mind and body are normal.
3866 health care
3869 health-environment relationship Relationship between the quality of the environment and the health conditions of individuals.
387 amphibian A class of vertebrate animals characterized by a moist, glandular skin, gills at some stage of development, and no amnion during the embryonic stage.
3871 health facility A facility or location where medical, dental, surgical, or nursing attention or treatment is provided to humans or animals.
3872 health hazard
3874 health legislation Laws, ordinances, or codes prescribing sanitary, clean air, etc., standards and regulations, designed to promote and preserve the health of the community and working conditions of businesses.
3877 health protection
3878 health regulation A body of rules or orders prescribed by government or management to promote or protect the soundness of human bodies and minds in the workplace, at home or in the general environment.
388 amusement park An open-air entertainment area consisting of stalls, side shows etc.
3880 health-related biotechnology Health-related biotechnologies are concerned with large-molecule protein pharmaceuticals, genetic engineering, etc.
3881 health service The supply of health care to the public.
3884 hearing impairment A decrease in strength or any abnormality or partial or complete loss of hearing or of the function of ear, or hearing system, due directly or secondarily to pathology or injury; it may be either temporary or permanent.
3885 hearing procedure Any prescribed course or mode of action governing the preliminary examination by a magistrate of basic evidence and charges to determine whether criminal proceedings, a trial or other judicial actions are justified.
3886 hearing protection The total of measures and devices implemented to preserve persons from harm to the faculty of perceiving sound.
3887 hearing (sense) The general perceptual behaviour and the specific responses made in relation to sound stimuli.
3890 heat (physics) A form of energy that is transferred by a difference in temperature: it is equal to the total kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules of a system.
3891 heat and power station Power station which produces both electricity and hot water for the local population. A CHP (Combined Heat and Power Station) plant may operate on almost any fuel, including refuse.
3892 heater An apparatus that heats or provides heat.
3893 heathland An area with poor acid soil, typically dominated by ling (Calluna) or heaths (Erica).
3894 heating A system for supplying heat, especially central heating, to a building.
3900 heating plant Plant for producing and supplying heat.
3904 heat pump A device which transfers heat from a cooler reservoir to a hotter one, expending mechanical energy in the process, especially when the main purpose is to heat the hot reservoir rather than refrigerate the cold one.
3906 heat storage Keeping heat created during a period of low consumption until a peak period when it is needed.
3907 heat supply The provision of heating fuel, coal or other heating source materials, or the amount of heating capacity, for the use of a municipality, or other heat user.
391 anaerobic condition A mode of life carried on in the absence of molecular oxygen.
3911 heavy goods vehicle traffic Traffic of large motor vehicles designed to carry heavy loads.
3914 heavy metal load The amount of stress put on an ecosystem by heavy metal pollution released into it.
3915 heavy metal A metal whose specific gravity is approximately 5.0 or higher.
3917 hedge A line of closely planted bushes or shrubs, marking the boundaries of a field. The type of hedge varies between parts of the country, and its age can be dated from the number of species of tree and shrub present. Over the last thirty years hedge-row removal has had a marked visual effect on lowland agricultural landscapes. From the farmer's point of view, in areas of predominant arable or intensively managed grazing, there is little or no economic justification for retaining hedges.
3933 herbicide A chemical that controls or destroys undesirable plants.
3935 herbivore An animal that feeds on grass and other plants.
3937 heterocyclic compound Compound in which the ring structure is a combination of more than one kind of atom.
394 anaerobic process A process from which air or oxygen not in chemical combination is excluded.
3945 higher education Study beyond secondary school at an institution that offers programs terminating in undergraduate and graduate degrees.
3947 highland ecosystem The interacting systems of the biological communities and their non-living surroundings in regions of relatively high elevation, typically characterized by decreased air pressure and temperature, reduced oxygen availability and increased isolation.
3949 high mountain
3953 high protein food
3954 high-rise building Any tall, multistoried structure or edifice that is equipped with elevators.
3955 high-speed railway The term "high-speed traffic" encompasses all trains running at speeds over 200 km/h but also trains running at 200 km/h if the terrain, population density or economic reasons do not justify higher speeds.
3956 high-speed train Trains travelling at maximum speeds of 300kmh on special high-speed rail lines.
3958 high tide water The level of water when the tide is at its highest level.
3960 high voltage line An electric line with a voltage on the order of thousands of volts.
3963 highway A public road especially an important road that joins cities or towns together.
3966 hill A natural elevation of the land surface, rising rather prominently above the surrounding land, usually of limited extent and having a well-defined outline, rounded rather than peaked or rugged, with no specific definition of absolute elevation.
397 analysis Examination or determination.
3971 historical evolution The process by which small but cumulative changes in the learned, nonrandom, systematic behavior and knowledge of a people occur from generation to generation.
3974 historical monument Monument built in memory of an historical event.
3975 historical research The study of events in relation to their development over time.
3977 historical site Place where significant historical events occurred and which is important to an indigenous culture or a community.
398 analysis programme
3983 history A systematic written account comprising a chronological record of events (as affecting a city, state, nation, institution, science, or art) and usually including a philosophical explanation of the cause and origin of such events.
3984 holiday camp A place providing accommodation, recreational facilities, etc. for holiday-makers.
3986 holiday 1) A period in which a break is taken from work or studies for rest, travel or recreation 2) A day on which work is suspended by law or custom, such as a religious festival, bank holiday, etc.
399 analytical chemistry The branch of chemistry dealing with techniques which yield any type of information about chemical systems.
3995 horse A large animal with four legs which people ride on or use for carrying things or pulling vehicles.
3998 horticulture The art and science of growing plants.
3999 hospital A place where people who are ill or injured are treated and taken care of by doctors and nurses.
4002 hospital waste Solid waste, both biological and non-biological, produced by hospitals and discarded and not intended for further use.
4008 hotel industry The industry related with the provision of lodging and usually meals and other services for travelers and other paying guests.
4009 hot water
401 analytical equipment Equipment employed in analytical techniques.
4015 household A group of persons sharing a home or living space, who aggregate and share their incomes, as evidenced by the fact that they regularly take meals together.
4016 household chemical
4018 household goods Goods needed for living in a household.
402 analytical method
4022 housing 1) Dwelling-houses collectively and the provision of these. 2) Shelter, lodging.
4027 housing density The number of dwelling units or the residential population of a given geographic area.
4029 housing finance
4030 housing improvement An addition, renovation or repair to a place of residence that increases its aesthetic, functional or financial value.
4032 housing legislation A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to regulate the buying, selling, leasing, construction or maintenance of dwelling places.
4034 housing need
4037 housing programme A planned system of projects, services or activities intended to support individuals or families in need of shelter, including transitional or permanent housing and safe havens for low-income, elderly or homeless populations.
4039 housing quality standard A norm or measure applicable in legal cases and considered to reflect a relatively high grade or level of excellence in the construction, maintenance, operation, occupancy, use or appearance of dwelling units.
404 swans, geese and ducks A family of waterfowl, including ducks, gees, mergansers, pochards and swans, in the order Anseriformes.
4040 installation restoration The process of repairing or reconstructing an edifice in order to return it to its original condition.
4045 human biology The study of human life and character.
4046 human disease An interruption, cessation or disorder of human bodily functions, systems or organs resulting from genetic or developmental errors, infection, nutritional deficiency, toxicity, illness or unfavorable environmental factors.
4047 human ecology The study of the growth, distribution, and organization of human communities relative to their interrelationships with other humans and other species and with their environment.
4049 human exposure to pollutants
4051 human health The avoidance of disease and injury and the promotion of normalcy through efficient use of the environment, a properly functioning society, and an inner sense of well-being.
4052 human-made disaster Violent, sudden and destructive change in the environment caused by man.
4054 human pathology Branch of medicine concerned with the cause, origin, and nature of disease, including the changes occurring as a result of disease.
4055 human physiology A branch of biological sciences that studies the functions of organs and tissues in human beings.
4056 human population Group of individuals having common characteristics.
406 anatomy The science concerned with the physical structure of animals and plants.
4060 human rights The rights of individuals to liberty, justice, etc.
4062 human settlement Cities, towns, villages, and other concentrations of human populations which inhabit a given segment or area of the environment. Human settlements are associated with numerous and complex environmental, pollution, and living condition problems for planning and management.
4065 human settlement management
4070 humus The more or less decomposed organic matter in the soil. Besides being the source of most of the mineral salts needed by plants, humus improves the texture of the soil and holds water, so reducing the loss of nutrients by leaching.
4072 hunting The pursuit and killing or capture of wild animals, regarded as a sport.
4073 hunting reserve Area of land where the pursuit and killing or capture of game and wild animals is permitted.
4077 hurricane A tropical cyclone of great intensity; any wind reaching a speed of more than 73 miles per hour (117 kilometers per hour) is said to have hurricane force.
4080 hybridisation The act or process of producing hybrids that is an animal or plant resulting from a cross between genetically unlike individuals. Hybrids between different species are usually sterile.
4082 hydraulic construction Any structure built to route the flow of water, or to support the weight and pressure of a body of water.
4084 hydraulic engineering A branch of civil engineering concerned with the design, erection, and construction of sewage disposal plants, waterworks, dams, water-operated power plants and such.
4085 hydraulics The branch of science and technology concerned with the mechanics of fluids, especially liquids.
4088 hydrobiology Study of organisms living in water.
4091 hydrocarbon A very large group of chemical compounds composed only of carbon and hydrogen.
4094 hydrochloric acid A solution of hydrogen chloride gas in water; a poisonous, pungent liquid forming a constant-boiling mixture at 20% concentration in water; widely used as a reagent, in organic synthesis, in acidizing oil wells, ore reduction, food processing, and metal cleaning and pickling. Also known as muriatic acid. HCl
4095 hydroculture Growing plants without soil but in sand or vermiculite or other granular material, using a liquid solution of nutrients to feed them.
4098 hydroelectric power plant Power station which operates with the free renewable source of energy provided by falling water.
4103 hydrogen A flammable colourless gas that is the lightest and most abundant element in the universe. It occurs mainly in water and in most organic compounds and is used in the production of ammonia and other chemicals, in the hydrogenation of fats and oils, and in welding.
4107 hydrogen sulphide Flammable, poisonous gas with characteristic odour of rotten eggs, perceptible in air in a dilution of 0.002 mg/l. It is used as a reagent in chemical analysis; extremely hazardous; collapse, coma and death from respiratory failure may come within a few seconds after one or two inspirations; low concentrations produce irritation of conjunctiva and mucous membranes. Headache, dizziness, nausea, lassitude may appear after exposure. H2S
4108 hydrogeology The science dealing with the occurrence of surface and ground water, its utilization, and its functions in modifying the earth, primarily by erosion and deposition.
4109 hydrography Science which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of the oceans, lakes, rivers, and their adjoining coastal areas, with particular reference to their control and utilization.
411 angiosperm The class of seed plants that includes all the flowering plants, characterized by the possession of flowers. The ovules, which become seeds after fertilization, are enclosed in ovaries. The xylem contains true vessels. The angiospermae are divided into two subclasses: Monocotyledoneae and Dycotiledoneae.
4111 hydrologic disaster Violent, sudden and destructive change either in the quality of the earth's water or in the distribution or movement of water on land, below the surface or in the atmosphere.
4115 hydrologic balance An accounting of the inflow to, outflow from, and storage in a hydrologic unit such as a drainage basin, aquifer, soil zone, lake or reservoir; the relationship between evaporation, precipitation, runoff, and the change in water storage.
4116 hydrologic cycle The movement of water between the oceans, ground surface and atmosphere by evaporation, precipitation and the activity of living organisms, as one of the mayor biogeochemical cycles. Each day water evaporates from the oceans and is carried in the air from the sea over the land, which receives it as precipitation, and finally returns from the land to the sea through rivers, thus completing the cycle.
4118 hydrology The science that treats the occurrence, circulation, distribution, and properties of the waters of the earth, and their reaction with the environment.
4119 hydrolysis 1) Decomposition or alteration of a chemical substance by water. 2) In aqueous solutions of electrolytes, the reactions of cations with water to produce a weak base or of anions to produce a weak acid.
412 angling The art or sport of catching fish with a rod and line and a baited hook or other lure, such as a fly.
4120 hydrometeorology That part of meteorology of direct concern to hydrologic problems, particularly to flood control, hydroelectric power, irrigation, and similar fields of engineering and water resource.
4122 water power Energy obtained from natural or artificial waterfalls, either directly by turning a water wheel or turbine, or indirectly by generating electricity in a dynamo driven by a turbine.
4124 hydrosphere The waters of the Earth, as distinguished from the rocks (lithosphere), living things (biosphere), and the air (atmosphere). Includes the waters of the ocean; rivers, lakes, and other bodies of surface water in liquid form on the continents; snow, ice, and glaciers; and liquid water, ice, and water vapour in both the unsaturated and saturated zones below the land surface. Included by some, but excluded by others, is water in the atmosphere , which includes water vapour, clouds, and all forms of precipitation while still in the atmosphere.
4126 hygiene The science that deals with the principles and practices of good health.
4127 hymenopteran Insects including bees, wasps, ants, and sawflies, having two pair of membranous wings and an ovipositor specialized for stinging, sawing or piercing.
4131 ice The dense substance formed by the freezing of water to the solid state; it commonly occurs in the form of hexagonal crystals.
4132 iceberg A large mass of detached land ice floating in the sea or stranded in shallow water.
4133 ice pack Large areas of floating ice, usually occurring in polar seas, consisting of separate pieces that have become massed together.
4136 identification of pollutants The determination of the specific substance or substances that are causing pollution.
4137 ideology A body of ideas that reflects the beliefs and interest of a nation, political system, etc. and underlies political action.
4140 image processing The process of converting 'raw' remotely sensed data into a usable form through the application of various transformations such as supervised and unsupervised classification schemes.
4141 IMCO code Codes published by Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organisation (IMCO) relating to international shipping, particularly regarding safety and marine pollution. CK!
4143 bastardisation of fauna One of the possible consequences of the introduction of animal species in an area where they are not indigenous. Such translocation of species always involves an element of risk if not of serious danger. Newly arrived species may be highly competitive with or otherwise adversely affect native species and communities.
4144 bastardisation of flora One of the possible consequences of the introduction of plant species in an area where they are not indigenous.
4146 immission The reception of material, such as pollutants, by the environment and from any source.
4147 immission control Legislative and administrative procedures aimed at reducing the damage caused by emissions. Pollution control programmes are normally based on human-oriented acceptable dose limits. A very important measure concerns the organisation of an emission inventory.
4148 immission control law
4149 immission damage Damage caused by pollution from a distinct source of emission.
415 animal behaviour Behaviour of animals in their normal environment, including all the processes, both internal and external, by which they respond to changes in their environment.
4150 immission forecast The prediction of immissions is calculated on the basis of the pollutant load, the source height, the wind speed and the dispersion coefficient.
4151 immission limit Maximum levels of selected pollutants which would lead to unacceptable air quality.
4152 immission load The total amount of immissions introduced in a given environment.
4154 immune system A body system that helps an organism to resist disease, through the activities of specialised blood cells or antibodies produced by them in response to natural exposure or inoculation.
4155 immunity The ability of an organism to resist disease or toxins by natural or artificial means.
4156 immunoassay Any of several methods for the quantitative determination of chemical substances such as hormones, drugs, and certain proteins that utilize the highly specific binding between an antigen and an antibody.
4157 immunological disease The disruption of the complex system of interacting cells, cell products and cell-forming tissues that protects the body from pathogens, destroys infected and malignant cells and removes cellular debris.
4158 immunology A branch of biological science concerned with the native or acquired resistance of higher animal forms and humans to infection with microorganisms.
4159 impact assessment Evaluation of the effect of a project upon the environment.
4160 impact minimisation Actions, procedures or installations undertaken to reduce the extent or degree of negative effects on human health and the ecosystem introduced by human design or interaction with the environment.
4161 impactor Instrument which samples atmospheric suspensoids by impaction; such instruments consist of a housing which constrains the air flow past a sensitized sampling plate.
4162 impact prevention Precautionary measures, actions or installations implemented to avert negative effects on the environment.
4163 impact source Elements of an action which cause damage to the surrounding environment.
4164 implementation law
4167 import The act of bringing goods and merchandise into a country from a foreign country.
4169 import licence Permission from a government to bring within its borders and sell a product manufactured in a foreign country.
417 animal disease
4171 impoverishment
4172 impregnating agent A material used to fill holes in wood, plaster, or other surfaces before applying a coating such as paint or varnish.
4173 impregnation (materials) The forcing of a liquid substance into the spaces of a porous solid in order to change its properties, as the impregnation of wood with creosote to preserve its integrity against water damage.
4176 improvement of efficiency The beneficial development or progress in the volume of output that is achieved in terms of productivity and input, or in getting the maximum possible output from given or allocated resources.
4177 sudden load Sudden immission in considerable amount of one or more pollutants in the atmosphere, in a water body or in the soil.
4178 impulsive noise Noise characterized by transient short-duration disturbances distributed essentially uniformly over the useful passband of a transmission system.
4182 incineration Controlled process by which solid, liquid, or gaseous combustible wastes are burned and changed into gases; residue produced contains little or no combustible material.
4183 incineration of waste The controlled burning of solid, liquid, or gaseous combustible wastes to produce gases and solid residues containing little or no combustible material in order to reduce the bulk of the original waste materials.
4184 incinerator Device which burns waste.
4186 slope The inclined surface of any part of the Earth's surface, as a hillslope; also, a broad part of a continent descending toward an ocean, as the Pacific slope.
4187 income The gain derived from capital, from labour or effort, or both combined, including profit or gain through sale or conversion of capital.
4189 incorporation
419 animal dung as fuel Excrement from animals that may be dried and burned to generate energy or converted to liquid or gaseous fuels, such as methane, through chemical processes.
4194 indemnity Financial compensation, reimbursement or security for damages or loss offered by a government, insurance policy or contractual agreement under specified conditions and for specific casualties.
4195 Indian Ocean A body of water between the continents of Africa, Antarctica, Asia and Australia including the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Arabian Sea (with the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and the Persian Gulf) in the west, and containing several islands and island chains, such as the Andaman, Nicobar and Seychelles.
4196 indicator Something that provides an indication especially of trends.
42 acid deposition A type of pollution which washes out of the atmosphere as dilute sulphuric and nitric acids. It tends to be a regional rather than a global phenomenon, linked to particular industrial activities and meteorological conditions. It includes rain, more than normally acidic snow, mist, sleet, fog, gas and dry particles. It upsets the balance of nature, disrupting ecosystems, and destroys forests and woodlands, plants and crops; kills aquatic life by altering the chemical balance of lakes and rivers and corrodes building materials and fabrics. The pollutants are caused principally by discharges from power station chimneys of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides released by burning fossil fuels, coal and oil.
420 animal ecology A study of the relationships of animals to their environment.
4200 indicator of environmental management
4202 indicator of environmental quality Qualitative or quantitative parameter used as a measure of an environmental condition, e.g. of air or water quality.
4204 indigenous forest Forests which are native to a given area.
4205 indigenous technology Technologies employed by the native inhabitants of a country and which constitute an important part of its cultural heritage and should therefore be protected against exploitation by industrialized countries; the problem of indigenous knowledge has been discussed during the Rio Conference but it does not receive much protection under the Biodiversity Convention. Article 8 mandates that parties "respect, preserve and maintain knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities embodying traditional life styles... and promote their wider application with the approval and involvement of holders of such knowledge, innovations and practices and encourage the equitable sharing of benefits arising from them".
4206 indirect discharger A non-domestic source introducing pollutants into a publicly owned waste-treatment system. Indirect dischargers can be commercial or industrial facilities whose wastes enter local sewers.
4209 indoor air pollution Chemical, physical or biological contaminants in the air inside buildings and other enclosed spaces occupied by humans. This pollution can arise from tobacco smoke, pesticides, cleaning agents, gases released from building materials, rugs, household products, etc.
421 animal experiment Investigation carried out in animals for research purposes.
4211 indoor environment Environment situated in the inside of a house or other building.
4213 industrial area Areas allocated for industry within a town-planning scheme or environmental plan. The range of industries accommodated in a plan may include: light industry, service industry, general industry, hazardous, noxious or offensive industry, waterfront industry, extractive industry. Standards are usually defined for industrial areas relating to access and roads, drainage, car parking, aesthetics, landscaping, buffer zones, noise levels, and air and water pollution.
4216 industrial association
4217 industrial building A building directly used in manufacturing or technically productive enterprises. Industrial buildings are not generally or typically accessible to other than workers. Industrial buildings include buildings used directly in the production of power, the manufacture of products, the mining of raw materials, and the storage of textiles, petroleum products, wood and paper products, chemicals, plastics, and metals.
4224 industrial crop Any crop that provides materials for industrial processes and products such as soybeans, cotton (lint and seed), flax, and tobacco.
4226 industrial development
4227 industrial dumping The disposal of any waste generated by a manufacturing or processing process by the agency or body which produced it.
4228 industrial economics The production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services resulting from all manufacturing business.
4229 industrial effluent Materials generally discarded from industrial operations or derived from manufacturing processes.
423 animal foodstuff Any crops or other food substances for animal consumption.
4231 industrial emission Gas-borne pollutants discharged into the atmosphere from smokestacks of industrial plants.
4233 industrial environmental policy The guiding procedure, philosophy or course of action for the protection of natural resources from pollution generated by manufacturing or business enterprises.
4234 industrial equipment Equipment related to industrial activities.
4238 industrial fume Any smokelike or vaporous exhalation from matters or substances, especially of an odorous or harmful nature, which result from trading, commercial or manufacturing processes.
4242 industrial installation A device, system or piece of equipment installed for a particular industry.
4244 industrialisation The process whereby manufacturing industry comes to occupy the predominant position in a national or regional economy.
4247 industrial legislation A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to regulate working conditions or the acquisition, processing and disposal of materials by the aggregate of factories, companies and enterprises in one or more manufacturing or technically productive fields.
4249 industrial material
425 animal genetics The scientific study of the hereditary material of animals for theoretical and practical applications such as increased population, conservation and disease research.
4250 industrial medicine The branch of medicine which deals with the relationship of humans to their occupations, for the purpose of the prevention of disease and injury and the promotion of optimal health, productivity, and social adjustment.
4251 industrial noise Noise produced by industrial plants activities.
4253 industrial planning The process of making arrangements or preparations to facilitate the manufacturing, producing and processing of goods or merchandise.
4254 industrial plant (building) Buildings where the operations related to industrial productive processes are carried out.
4255 industrial policy Course of action adopted by national government to support and promote industrial activities.
4256 industrial pollution Pollution as a result of industrial processes and manufacturing.
4257 industrial process
4258 industrial production Any process of converting or transforming raw materials and other resources into goods or services which have value.
4259 industrial production statistics
4260 industrial product
4262 industrial property right A justifiable claim granted by government or some other authority that offers protection or excludes others from making, using or selling an invention, a unique design of an article of manufacture or some other creation or discovery.
4267 industrial site The location for the individual manufacturing firm.
4268 industrial sludge Sludge produced as a result of industrial production processes or manufacturing.
4269 industrial society A large-scale community with diverse manufacturing sectors and an infrastructure and economy based on the science, technology and instrumental rationality of the modern West.
4273 industrial waste Waste materials discarded from industrial operations, or derived from manufacturing processes; may be solid, sludge (wet solids) or liquid wastes and may or may not be considered hazardous.
4274 industrial waste gas Waste gases resulting from manufacturing and other industrial processes which may be treated and released, treated and reused or released without treatment.
4276 industrial waste water Waste water that results from industrial processes and manufacturing. It may either be disposed of separately or become part of the sanitary or combined sewage.
4278 industrial zoning A system of land use planning that forms zones or boundaries to be used only by manufacturing or business enterprises.
4279 industry An industry is a group of establishments engaged in the same or similar kinds of economic activities. Industries produce commodities that are sold with the expectation of recovering the total cost of production. A single industry can produce many different commodities.
428 animal housing Any kind of shelter, refuge affording protection to animals.
4282 inertisation The process of waste inertisation includes solidification and stabilisation; stabilisation is the process used for reduction of hazard potential of the waste by converting the contaminants into their least soluble, least immobile, or least toxic form. Solidification physically binds or encapsulates the waste in a monolithic solid of high structural integrity. Thus solidification may be used for powders, liquids or gases.
4283 inert waste Wastes that do not undergo any significant physical, chemical, or biological transformations when deposited in a landfill.
4284 infant mortality The rate of deaths occurring in the first year of life for a given population.
4286 infection The entry and development or multiplication of an infectious agent in the body of a living organism.
4288 infectious disease Pathogenic condition resulting from invasion of an host by a pathogen that propagates causing infection.
4289 infestation of crops Invasion of crop by parasites. Among vertebrate animals, many crop pests are mammals, especially in the order of rodents and birds. Among invertebrates, certain species of gastropods and a large number of roundworms from the class of nematodes harm crops. The most varied and numerous species of crop pests are arthropods-insects, arachnids and some species of millipedes and crustaceans. Diseases vary from viral, bacterial, and nutritional to fungal, environmental and non-specific. The FAO has estimated that annual worldwide losses done by plant pests and diseases amount to approximately 20-25% of the potential worldwide yield of food crops.
429 animal husbandry A branch of agriculture concerned with the breeding and feeding of domestic animals.
4290 infestation of food Food that has been contaminated and deteriorated by some kind of pest.
4291 infiltration Movement of water through the soil surface into the ground.
4296 inflammable substance Substance liable to catch fire.
4300 inflow 1) Water other than wastewater that enters a sewer system (including sewer service connections) from sources such as, but not limited to, roof leaders, cellars drains, yard drains, area drains, drains from springs and swampy areas, manhole covers, cross connections between storm sewers and sanitary sewers, catch basins, cooling towers, storm waters, surface runoff, street wash waters, or drainage. Inflow does not include, and is distinguished from, infiltration. 2) Action of flowing in; an inflow of effluent into a river.
4301 informal negotiation
4302 informatics Science and technique of data elaboration and of automatic treatment of information.
4303 information All facts, ideas or imaginative works of the mind which have been communicated, published or distributed formally or informally in any format, or the knowledge that is communicated or received.
4307 information processing A systematic series of actions performed by a person or computer on data elements including classifying, sorting, calculating, summarizing, transmitting, retrieving and receiving.
4309 information service An organized system of providing assistance or aid to individuals who are seeking information, such as by using databases and other information sources to communicate or supply knowledge or factual data.
4310 information source Generally, any resource initiating and substantiating the reception of knowledge or specifically, the origin of a data transmission.
4311 information system Any coordinated assemblage of persons, devices and institutions used for communicating or exchanging knowledge or data, such as by simple verbal communication, or by completely computerized methods of storing, searching and retrieving information.
4313 information technology The systems, equipment, components and software required to ensure the retrieval, processing and storage of information in all centres of human activity (home, office, factory, etc.), the application of which generally requires the use of electronics or similar technology.
4315 infraction A breach, violation, or infringement; as of a law, a contract, a right or duty.
4317 infrared radiation Electron magnetic radiation whose wavelengths lie in the range from 0.75 or 0.8 micrometer to 1000 micrometers.
432 animal manure Animal excreta collected from stables and barnyards with or without litter; used to enrich the soil.
4320 infrasound Vibrations of the air at frequencies too low to be perceived as sound by the human ear, below about 15 hertz.
4321 infrastructure The basic network or foundation of capital facilities or community investments which are necessary to support economic and community activities.
4323 inhabitant A person occupying a region, town, house, country, etc.
4325 injury A stress upon an organism that disrupts the structure or function and results in a pathological process.
4326 ink A dispersion of a pigment or a solution of a dye in a carrier vehicle, yielding a fluid, paste, or powder to be applied to and dried on a substrate; writing, marking, drawing, and printing inks are applied by several methods to paper, metal, plastic, wood, glass, fabric, or other substrate.
4329 inland fishery Fishing grounds located in lakes, streams, etc.
4331 inland navigation The navigation of inland waterways, i.e. navigable rivers, canals, sounds, lakes, inlets, etc.
4333 inland water A lake, river, or other body of water wholly within the boundaries of a state.
4336 inland waterways transport Transportation of persons and goods by boats travelling on rivers, channels or lakes.
434 animal noise Noise caused by animals such as dogs kept in kennels or in private homes as pets.
4340 innovation Something newly introduced, such as a new method or device.
4342 inorganic chemistry A branch of chemistry dealing with the chemical reactions and properties of all inorganic matter.
4345 inorganic fertiliser Inorganic chemical which promotes plant growth by enhancing the supply of essential nutrients such as ammonium sulphate or lime.
4347 inorganic pollutant A pollutant of mineral origin and not of basically carbon structure.
435 animal nutrition Ingestion, digestion and/or assimilation of food by animals.
4350 inorganic substance Chemical compounds that do not contain carbon as the principal element (excepting carbonates, cyanides, and cyanates), that is, matter other than plant or animal.
4354 insecticide Any chemical agent used to destroy invertebrate pests.
4356 insectivore Any placental mammal of the order Insectivora, being typically small, with simple teeth, and feeding on invertebrates. The group includes shrews, moles, and hedgehogs.
4358 insect A class of the Arthropoda typically having a segmented body with an external, chitinous covering, a pair of compound eyes, a pair of antennae, three pairs of mouthparts, and two pairs of wings.
4359 in situ In the natural or normal place.
4360 inspection An official examination and evaluation of the extent to which specified goals, objectives, standards, policies or procedures of an agency, organization, department or unit have been met properly.
4361 inspection of records
4362 inspection service An organization designated to look into, supervise and report upon, the staff members and workings of some institution or department, or the conforming to laws and regulations by a segment of society or other group.
4363 installation requiring approval The official authorization needed to assemble and place into position any apparatus, facility, military post or machinery.
4365 institutionalisation The establishment and normalization of a law, custom, usage, practice, system or regulative principle in the activity or purpose of a group or organization.
4369 instrument manufacture
437 animal physiology Study of the normal processes and metabolic functions of animal organisms.
4371 sound insulation material Material used to reduce the transmission of sound to or from a body, device, room, etc.
4374 insurance The act, system, or business of providing financial protection contingencies, such as death, loss or damage and involving payment of regular premiums in return for a policy guaranteeing such protection.
4375 insurance business A commercial service which provides a guarantee against most losses or harm to a person, property or a firm in return for premiums paid.
4376 insurance coverage The protection provided against risks or a risk, often as specified by the type of protection or the item being protected.
4378 integral natural reserve Areas allocated to preserve and protect certain animals and plants, or both. They differ from national parks, which are largely a place for public recreation, because they are provided exclusively to protect species for their own sake. Endangered species are increasingly being kept in nature reserves to prevent them from extinction. Nature reserves also serve as a place for more plentiful species to rest, breed or winter.
4382 integrated environmental protection technology Technologies that meet environmental objectives by incorporating pollution prevention concepts in their design. Integrated environmental control strategies introduced in the early design stages of a process, rather than an end-of-pipe control option introduced in the later stages, improve the technical and economic performance of a process.
4383 integrated pest control A systematic, comprehensive approach to pest control that uses the insect's or rodent's own biology and behaviour to find the least toxic control methods at the lowest cost.
4386 integrated pollution control A procedure whereby all major emissions to land, air, and water are considered simultaneously and not in isolation to avoid situations in which one control measure for one medium adversely affects another.
4390 intensive animal husbandry Specialized system of breeding animals where the livestock are kept indoors and fed on concentrated foodstuffs, with frequent use of drugs to control diseases which are a constant threat under these conditions.
4391 intensive farming Farming in which as much use is made of the land as possible by growing crops close together or by growing several crops in a year or by using large amounts of fertilizers.
4395 interaction of pesticides The enhancement of activity of pesticides when they are used in combination with others.
4398 interchange of electronic data A transference of binary coded information items between two or more computers across any communications channel capable of carrying electromagnetic signals.
44 acidification Addition of an acid to a solution until the pH falls below 7.
4400 interdisciplinary research The utilisation, combination and coordination of two or more appropriate disciplines, technologies and humanities in an integrated approach toward environmental problems.
4401 interest A sum paid or charged for the use of money or for borrowing money over a given time period.
4402 interest group A group of people who share common traits, attitudes, beliefs or objectives and who have formed a formal organization to serve specific concerns of the membership.
4404 interim decision
4408 interlaboratory comparison Tests performed at the same time in different laboratories to validate the quality of the results.
441 animal production
4410 intermediate goods Partly finished goods or products that re-enter into production elsewhere.
4412 intermittent noise Noise occurring at regular or irregular intervals.
4414 internal European market
4415 internalisation of environmental costs
4417 international agreement Cooperation in international efforts to support global environmental goals. Solutions to environmental problems such as trans-boundary airborne and waterborne pollution, ozone depletion and climate change require action by all responsible countries.
4419 international competitiveness The ability of firms to strive with rivals in the production and sale of commodities in worldwide markets.
442 animal product
4420 international convention Treaties and other agreements of a contractual character between different countries or organizations of states creating legal rights and obligations between the parties.
4421 international co-operation The collaboration between governments, businesses or individuals in which it is agreed to work together on similar objectives or strategies, particularly in research or in setting industrial standards.
4422 International Court of Justice Judicial arm of the United Nations. It has jurisdiction to give advisory opinions on matters of law and treaty construction when requested by the General Assembly, Security Council or any other international agency authorised by the General Assembly to petition for such opinion. It has jurisdiction, also, to settle legal disputes between nations when voluntarily submitted to it.
4423 international distribution The worldwide allocating of resources or dispersing of goods.
4424 international division of labour
4427 international environmental relations The political or diplomatic interaction or dealings between independent nations that pertain to ecological concerns.
4429 international harmonisation Harmonisation of the interrelationship of sovereign states by the application of general principles recognized by civilized nations.
443 animal protection Precautionary actions or procedures taken to prevent or reduce the harm to sentient, non-human species, posed, in most cases, by humans.
4430 international law The system of law regulating the interrelationship of sovereign states and their rights and duties with regard to one another.
4432 internationally important ecosystem Ecosystems whose importance is recognised at international level and which are, in some cases, protected by international conventions.
4434 international organisation An association of independent states, whose representatives gather for the promotion of common interests including defense and trade.
4436 international politics The use of methods, strategy, intrigue, decision making and power by governments and their representatives to achieve goals in policy making or governmental affairs in a worldwide or international arena.
4438 international relations The political or diplomatic interaction or dealings between independent nations.
4440 international river basin Land area drained by a river and its tributaries whose waters are situated in and utilized by two or more countries.
4441 international safety Freedom from danger or the quality of averting risk of harm to persons, property or the environment shared across one or more national boundaries; consequently, the combined efforts of more than one nation to achieve or preserve that state.
4442 international standardisation The process of establishing or conforming something to a norm or measure that is recognized beyond the boundaries of a single country or nation.
4444 international trade The flow of commodities and goods between nations.
4448 international watercourse Portions of a geographical area which constitutes a hydrogeological unit as the catchment area for a single river which are under the jurisdiction of two or more countries.
445 animal resource
4451 interpretation method Method employed in the assessment of the meaning and significance of data, results, facts, etc.
4454 intertidal zone 1) The area between land and sea which is regularly exposed to the air by the tidal movement of the sea. Marine organisms that inhabit the intertidal zones have to adapt to periods of exposure to air and to the waves created by wind, which makes it the most physically demanding of the marine habitats. 2) The shore zone between the highest and lowest tides.
4455 intervention in nature and landscape Stepping in or participating in problem solving efforts for troublesome or perplexing situations involving the natural world or scenery.
4466 inventory A detailed list of articles, goods, property, etc.
4468 inventory of forest damage Survey of a forest area to determine forest depletion. The aim of the inventory is to give an overview of the forest conditions. Especially should the inventory aim to detect any changes in the forest conditions, but it should also provide the distribution of the forest damages and find out any relation with site and stand conditions.
4473 inversion A reversal in the usual direction of a process, as in the change of density of water at 4° C.
4474 inversion layer The atmosphere layer through which an inversion occurs.
4475 invertebrate Any animal lacking a backbone, including all species not classified as vertebrates.
4478 investment Any item of value purchased for profitable return, as income, interest or capital appreciation.
448 animal for slaughter Animals bred and killed for the production of food.
4480 in vitro assay Assay taking place in an artificial environment.
4481 in vivo assay Experiments that are carried out in the living organism.
4483 iodine A nonmetallic halogen element; the poisonous, corrosive dark plates or granules are readily sublimed; insoluble in water, soluble in common solvents; used as germicide and antiseptic, in dyes, tinctures, and pharmaceuticals, in engraving lithography, and as a catalyst and analytical reagent.
4485 ion exchange The process in which ions are exchanged between a solution and an insoluble solid, usually a resin.
4487 ion exchanger A permanent insoluble material (usually a synthetic resin) which contains ions that will exchange reversibly with other ions in a surrounding solution. Both cation and anion exchangers are used in water conditioning. The volume of an ion exchanger is measured in cubic liters of exchanger after the exchanger bed has been backwashed and drained, and has settled into place.
449 animal shelter A protection providing housing for animals in bad weather.
4491 ionising radiation Radiation that is capable of energizing atoms sufficiently to remove electrons from them. In this state atoms become more reactive, so that ionizing radiation increases chemical activity and in this way produces biological effects, including effects that involve alterations induced in DNA. X-rays and gamma-rays are the only electromagnetic waves that cause ionization in biological material.
4492 ionosphere A region of the earth's atmosphere, extending from about 60 to 1000 kilometers above the earth's surface, in which there is a high concentration of free electrons formed as a result of ionizing radiation entering the atmosphere from space.
4493 ion An electrically charged atom or group of atoms formed by the loss or gain of one or more electrons.
4498 iron A malleable ductile silvery-white ferromagnetic metallic element occurring principally in haematite and magnetite. It is widely used for structural and engineering purposes.
450 animal Any living organism characterized by voluntary movement, the possession of cells with noncellulose cell walls and specialized sense organs enabling rapid response to stimuli, and the ingestion of complex organic substances such as plants and other animals.
4501 iron industry A sector of the economy in which an aggregate of commercial enterprises is engaged in the extraction and refinement of iron ore to produce cast iron, wrought iron and steel.
4503 ironwork industry Industry for the production of iron articles.
4504 irradiation To subject to or treat with light or other electromagnetic radiation or with beams of particles.
4505 irrigation 1) To supply land with water so that crops and plants will grow or grow stronger.
4507 irrigation canal A permanent irrigation conduit constructed to convey water from the source of supply to one or more farms.
4509 irrigation farming Farming based on the artificial distribution and application of water to arable land to initiate and maintain plant growth.
451 animal textile fibre A filament or threadlike strand derived from animals that manufacturers use to produce clothes or other goods that require weaving, knitting or felting, which include silk, wool, mohair and other forms of animal hair.
4514 island A land mass, especially one smaller than a continent, entirely surrounded by water.
4515 island ecosystem Unique but fragile and vulnerable ecosystems due to the fact that the evolution of their flora and fauna has taken place in relative isolation. Many remote islands have some of the most unique flora in the world; some have species of plants and animals that are not found anywhere else, which have evolved in a specialized way, sheltered from the fierce competition that species face on mainland.
4518 insulation (process) The process of preventing or reducing the transmission of electricity, heat, or sound to or from a body, device, or region by surrounding it with a nonconducting material.
4519 isomer 1) Two or more compounds having the same molecular formula, but a different arrangement of atoms within the molecule. 2) One of two or more chemical substances having the same elementary percentage composition and molecular weight but differing in structure, and therefore in properties; there are many ways in which such structural differences occur.
452 animal trade The process or act of exchanging, buying or selling animals, especially livestock.
4523 isotope One or two or more atoms with the same atomic number that contain different numbers of neutrons.
4524 ivory The fine-grained creamy-white dentine forming the tusks of elephants, and the teeth or tusks of certain other large animals such as the walrus; it has long been esteemed for a wide variety of ornamental articles.
453 animal waste Discarded material from industries directly associated with the raising of animals, such as those wastes produced by livestock farming (manure, milk, etc.), meat production and animal testing (animal bodies, animal parts, feathers, etc.) and fur breeding (fur, blood, etc.).
4530 joint debtor Persons united in a joint liability or indebtedness. Two or more persons jointly liable for the same debt.
4531 joint implementation (Rio Conference)
4534 judicial assistance A program sponsored or administered by a government to guide through and represent in court proceedings persons who are in financial need and cannot afford private counsel.
4535 judicial body Any public organization or branch of government responsible for the administration of justice or the enforcement of laws.
4538 judiciary rule Specific norms, regulations and precedents governing the conduct, procedure and arrangement of a judicial system, its various divisions and its officers.
454 anion An ion that is negatively charged.
4541 jurisdiction The power of a court to hear and decide a case or make a certain order.
4543 jurisprudence The science or philosophy of law.
4545 karst 1) A German rendering of a Serbo-Croat term referring to the terrain created by limestone solution and characterized by a virtual absence of surface drainage, a series of surface hollows, depressions and fissures, collapse structures, and an extensive subterranean drainage network. 2) A type of topography that is formed on limestone, gypsum, and other rocks by dissolution, and that is characterized by sinkholes, caves, and underground drainage. Etymology: German, from the Yugoslavian territory Krs; type locality, a limestone plateau in the Dinaric Alps of northwestern Yugoslavia and northeastern Italy.
4548 stocking To keep a supply accumulated for future use. term mainly used for goods
4550 kerosene A thin oil distilled from petroleum or shale oil, used as a fuel for heating and cooking, in lamps, and as a denaturant for alcohol.
456 annelid Any worms of the phylum Anellida, in which the body is divided into segments both internally and externally. The group includes the earthworms, lugworm, ragworm, and leeches.
4566 labelling Attaching a notice to a product or container bearing information concerning its contents, proper use, manufacturer and any cautions or hazards of use.
4567 laboratory A room or building with scientific equipment for doing scientific tests or for teaching science, or a place where chemicals or medicines are produced.
4571 laboratory experiment Tests or investigations carried out in a laboratory.
4573 laboratory research Research carried out in a laboratory for testing chemical substances, growing tissues in cultures, or performing microbiological, biochemical, hematological, microscopical, immunological, parasitological tests, etc.
4574 laboratory technique
4575 laboratory waste Discarded materials produced by analytical and research activities in a laboratory.
4577 labour One of the factors of production. It includes all the exertions - manual, physical or mental - by individuals, directed towards the production of wealth.
458 antagonism The situation in which two chemicals upon interaction interfere in such a way that the action of one partially or completely inhibits the effects of the other.
4580 labour law The branch of the legal system which lays down the rules governing employment relationships, trade union relations, and state intervention to provide protection against particular situations of need for citizens who are workers.
4581 labour market
4584 labour relations The dynamics or general state of the association between management and non-management employees in an enterprise, industry or nation, with special attention to the maintenance of agreements, collective bargaining and the status of unions.
4586 lacquer A material which contains a substantial quantity of a cellulose derivative, most commonly nitrocellulose but sometimes a cellulose ester, such as cellulose acetate or cellulose butyrate, or a cellulose ether such as ethyl cellulose; used to give a glossy finish, especially on brass and other bright metals.
4589 lagoon A body of water cut off from the open sea by coral reefs or sand bars.
4590 lake basin 1) The depression in the Earth's surface occupied or formerly occupied by a lake and containing its shore features. 2) The area from which a lake receives drainage.
4593 lake pollution The direct or indirect human alteration of the biological, physical, chemical or radiological integrity of lake water, or a lake ecosystem.
4594 lake An enclosed body of water, usually but not necessarily fresh water, from which the sea is excluded.
4597 lamp A device that produces light, such as an electric lamp.
4599 land A specified geographical tract of the Earth's surface including all its attributes, comprising its geology, superficial deposits, topography, hydrology, soils, flora and fauna, together with the results of past and present human activity, to the extent that these attributes exert a significant influence on the present and future land utilization.
460 antagonistic effect of toxic substances
4600 land access The permission or freedom to use, enter, approach or pass to and from a tract of land, which often consists of real estate property.
4602 land allotment Procedure by which big land properties are divided in parcels of smaller size.
4603 land and property register The system of registering certain legal estates or interests in land. It describes the land and any additional rights incidental to it, such as rights of way over adjoining land.
4607 land carrying capacity The maximum extent to which ground or soil area may be exploited without degradation or depletion.
4609 land clearing Removal of trees, undergrowth, etc. in preparation for ploughing, building, etc.
461 Antarctica A continent lying chiefly within the Antarctic Circle and asymmetrically centered on the South Pole: it consists of an ice-covered plateau (some 95 percent of Antarctica is covered by an icecap averaging 1,6 km in thickness), 1800-3000 m above sea level, and mountains ranges rising to 4500 m with some volcanic peaks; average temperatures all below freezing and human settlement is confined to research station.
4610 land conservation The care, preservation and re-use of solid areas of the earth's surface, especially soil regions valued as a natural resource or utilized as an agricultural resource.
4611 land consolidation Joining small plots of land together to form larger farms or large fields.
4612 land cover Land cover is the physical state of the land surface. It is the combination of vegetation, soil, rock, water and human-made structures, which make up the earth's landscape. The land cover is the interface between the earth's crust and the atmosphere, influencing the exchange of energy and matter in the climatic system and biogeochemical cycles.
4614 land development Planning of infrastructures, services and industrial settlements in order to promote the socio-economic growth of certain land area.
4615 land ecology Study of the relationship between terrestrial organisms and their environment.
4621 landfill The oldest method of waste disposal for the solid matter discarded in the domestic dustbin, along with the packaging material and paper from high street shops and offices. Landfill sites are usually disused quarries and gravel pits. When they were filled, previous practice was to cover them up with soil and forget about them. Housing estates have been built, often with disastrous consequences, on old landfill dumps. Waste burial has now become a serious technology and a potential source of energy. Landfill sites can be designed to be bioreactors, which deliberately produce methane, gas as a source of biofuel or alternative energy. Traditionally, waste tips remained exposed to air and aerobic microbes - those which thrive in air - in order to turn some of the waste into compost. However, open tips also encourage vermin, smell in hot weather and disfigure the landscape. In the 1960s, as a tidier and safer option, landfill operators began to seal each day's waste in a clay cell. While excluding vermin, the clay also excluded air. Decomposition relied on anaerobic microbes, which die in air. However, the process produced methane (natural gas), which was a safety hazard. The methane is now extracted by sinking a network of perforated pipes into the site.
4623 landfill covering The protective shielding, consisting of soil or some other material, that encloses disposal sites for compacted, non-hazardous solid waste, or secures disposal sites for hazardous waste to minimize the chance of releasing hazardous substances into the environment.
4624 landfill degasification Landfill gas is highly dangerous as methane is highly explosive; therefore it must be controlled at all operational landfill sites, whether by active or passive ventilation or both especially in the case of deep sites. There exist venting systems for shallow and deep sites respectively.
4625 landfill gas Landfill gas is generated in landfill sites by the anaerobic decomposition of domestic refuse (municipal solid waste). It consists of a mixture of gases and is colourless with an offensive odour due to the traces of organosulphur compounds. Aside for its unpleasantness, it is highly dangerous as methane is explosive in concentrations in air between 5 per cent, the Lower Explosive Limit (LEL), and the Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) of 15 per cent. Landfill gas must be controlled at all operational landfill sites, whether actively or passively vented or both especially in the case of deep sites.
4626 landfill leachate Liquid that has seeped through solid waste in a landfill and has extracted soluble dissolved or suspended materials in the process.
4628 land forming
4629 landform Any physical, recognizable form or feature of the Earth's surface, having a characteristic shape and produced by natural causes; it includes major forms such as plane, plateau and mountain, and minor forms such as hill, valley, slope, esker, and dune. Taken together the landforms make up the surface configuration of the Earth's.
463 Antarctic ecosystem
4632 land mammal
4633 land occupation The use, settlement or possession of solid areas of the earth's surface.
4635 land planning The activity of designing, organizing or preparing for the future use of solid areas of the earth's surface, especially regions valued for natural resources, utilized as agricultural resources or considered for human settlement.
4636 land pollution The presence of one or more contaminants upon or within an area of land, or its constituents.
464 Antarctic Ocean The waters, including ice shelves, that surround the continent of Antarctica, which comprise the southernmost parts of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans, and also the Ross, Amundsen, Bellingshausen and Weddell seas.
4641 land reclamation Making land capable of more intensive use by changing its general character, as by drainage of excessively wet land; irrigation of arid or semiarid land; or recovery of submerged land from seas, lakes and rivers.
4644 land register A register or survey of land, containing information on the surface of properties, tenants' names, commencing with the earliest owners through successive ownership and partitions, and such like.
4646 land restoration The treatment of any unusable land usually by filling with refuse or levelling until the land can be brought into productive use.
4648 landscape The traits, patterns, and structure of a specific geographic area, including its biological composition, its physical environment, and its anthropogenic or social patterns. An area where interacting ecosystems are grouped and repeated in similar form.
4649 landscape after mining The process of mining disfigures the surface of the land, and in the absence of reclamation leads to permanent scars. The process spoils the vital topsoil, disrupts drainage patterns, destroys the productive capacity of agricultural and forest land and impairs their aesthetic and social value.
465 Antarctic region An area within the Antarctic Circle that includes the fifth largest continent and its surrounding waters, consisting mostly of thick ice shelves.
4650 landscape alteration Landscapes might change through time as a result of human activities or natural processes such as fires or natural disasters. Changes in landscape structure can be documented by using data from aerial photographs or satellite images, and new technologies, such as remote sensing and geographic information systems.
4651 landscape architecture The creation, development, and decorative planting of gardens, grounds, parks, and other outdoor spaces. Landscape gardening is used to enhance nature helping to create a natural setting for individual residences and buildings, and even towns, particularly where special approaches and central settings are required.
4652 landscape component In visual assessment work, landscapes can be divided into four major elements. a) Form is the perceived mass or shape of an object that appears unified, and which provides a consciousness of its distinction and relation of a whole to the component parts. b) Line is the real or imagined path, border, boundary, or intersection of two planes, such as a silhouette, that the eye follows when perceiving abrupt differences in form, colour or texture. c) Colour is a visual perception that enables the eye to differenciate otherwise identical objects based on the wavelengths of reflected light. d) Texture is the visual feel of a landscape.
4653 landscape conservation The safeguarding, for public enjoyment, of landscape and of opportunities for outdoor recreation, tourism and similar activities; the concept includes the preservation and enhancement not only of what has been inherited but the provision of new amenities and facilities.
4654 landscape conservation policy
4657 landscape ecology The study of landscapes taking account of the ecology of their biological populations. The subjects thus embraces geomorphology and ecology and is applied to the design and architecture of landscapes.
4658 landscape management Measures aiming at preserving landscape or controlling its transformations caused by anthropic activities or natural events.
4659 landscape planning The aspect of the land use planning process that deals with physical, biological, aesthetic, cultural, and historical values and with the relationships and planning between these values, land uses, and the environment.
4660 landscape protection Elaboration and implementation of strategies and measures for the conservation, preservation, suitable use, and renewal of natural resources and nature or man-made components of landscape, in particular wildlife and natural systems of various standing.
4661 landscape protection area Area where landscape is protected for its particular features in order to maintain its role in contributing to the wider enjoyment of the countryside.
4662 landscape consumption Using parts of landscape in a way that heavily modifies its features. using parts of landscape strongly modifying its character with lost of landscape original character <D>
4663 landscape utilisation Using landscape or parts of it for tourism, sports, or agriculture. using landscape or parts of it (i.e. for tourism, sports or agriculture) <D>
4666 land setup The formulation of regional objectives, plans and programmes and the harmonization of the regional effects of sectorial planning.
4668 landslide Mass-movement landforms and processes involving the downslope transport, under gravitationary influence of soil and rock material en masse.
4676 land transportation Transport of persons and goods by a network of roads or railways.
4678 land use The term land use deals with the spatial aspects of all human activities on the land and with the way in which the land surface is adapted, or could be adapted, to serve human needs.
468 anthropic activity Action resulting from or influenced by human activity or intervention.
4680 land use classification The arrangement of land units into a variety of categories based on the properties of the land or its suitability for a particular purpose. It has become an important tool in rural land-resource planning.
4682 land use planning The interdisciplinary process of evaluating, organising, and controlling the present and the future development and use of lands and their resources in terms of their suitability on sustained yield basis. Includes an overall ecological evaluation in terms of specific kinds of uses as well as evaluations of social, economic, and physical contexts to the land concerned.
4684 soil use regime Type of management and utilization of the soil.
4686 land value The monetary or material worth in commerce or trade of an area of ground considered as property.
4691 large combustion plant Any sizable building which relies on machinery that converts energy released from the rapid burning of a fuel-air mixture into mechanical energy.
4698 laser Acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation; a device that produces a powerful, highly directional, monochromatic, coherent beam of light. Laser consist of a transparent cylinder with a reflecting surface at one end and a partially reflecting surface at the other. Light waves are reflected back and forth, some of them emerging at the partially reflecting end. The light source may be a ruby, whose chromium atoms are excited by a flash lamp so that they emit pulses of highly coherent light, or a mixture of inert gases that produce a continuos beam, or a cube of treated gallium arsenide which emits infrared radiation when an electric current passes through it.
47 acidity The state of being acid that is of being capable of transferring a hydrogen ion in solution.
470 anthropogenic factor
4702 laundering The act of washing and ironing clothes, linen, etc.
4707 law (individual) One of the rules making up the body of law.
4708 law amendment An alteration of or addition to any statute with legal force that, if approved by the appropriate legislative authority, supersedes the original statute.
471 anthropologic reserve Area of protection of the life style of societies where traditional human activities are still maintained and the exploitation of natural resources is still carried out without compromising the future availability.
4710 law enforcement Any variety of activities associated with promoting compliance and obedience to the binding rules of a state, especially the prevention, investigation, apprehension or detention of individuals suspected or convicted of violating those rules.
4715 neighbourhood law A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to protect human health and the environment, manage growth and development or enhance the quality of life in small geographical and social areas within cities where residents share values and concerns and interact with one another on a daily basis.
4719 law (science) Complex of rules fixed by law or custom which regulate social relations.
4722 leaching 1) The process of separating a liquid from a solid (as in waste liquid by percolation into the surrounding soil. 2) Extraction of soluble components of a solid mixture by percolating a solvent through it. 3) To lose or cause to lose soluble substances by the action of a percolating liquid.
4723 lead A heavy toxic bluish-white metallic element that is highly malleable; occurs principally as galena and is used in alloys, accumulators, cable sheaths, paints, and as a radiation shield. Pb
4724 lead compound Lead compounds are present as gasoline additives, in paint, ceramic products, roofing, caulking, electrical applications, tubes, or containers. Lead exposure may be due to air, water, food, or soil. Lead in the air is primarily due to lead-based fuels and the combustion of solid waste, coal, oils, and emissions from alkyl lead manufacturers, wind blown dust volcanoes, the burning of lead-painted surfaces, and cigarette smoke. Lead in drinking water comes from leaching from lead pipes, connectors, and solder in both the distribution system and household plumbing.
4725 lead contamination The presence and release into the air, water and soil, of lead, a toxic metal used in plumbing, gasoline and lead-acid batteries.
4727 lead-in-petrol law A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to reduce or eliminate the lead content in petroleum fuels used in vehicular and other engines that pollute the air with lead-carrying exhaust.
4728 lead level in blood A measure of the amount of lead or lead salts absorbed by the body as a possible sign of acute or chronic lead poisoning, which can affect the nervous, digestive or muscular systems.
473 antibiotic A chemical substance, produced by microorganisms and synthetically, that has the capacity to inhibit the growth of, and even to destroy, bacteria and other microorganisms.
4730 leaf The main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants, usually consisting of a flat green blade attached to the stem directly or by a stalk.
4731 leakage The accidental, uncontrolled discharge or seepage of liquids, gases and other substances to unintended and unwanted locations, frequently causing risks of damage or harm to persons, property or the environment.
4735 leather The dressed or tanned hide of an animal, usually with the hair removed.
4738 leather industry Industry for the production of leather goods such as garments, bags, etc.
4739 legal basis The fundamental law or judicial precedent that warrants or supports a subsequent decision or action by any governmental, corporate or private entity.
474 antibody A complex protein that is produced in response to the introduction of a specific antigen into an animal. Antibodies belong to a class of proteins called immunoglobins, which are formed by plasma cells in the blood as a defence mechanism against invasion by parasites, notably bacteria and viruses, either by killing them or rendering them harmless.
4741 legally protected right A justifiable claim to have or obtain something or to act in a certain way, which is supported by law and is covered or shielded from the danger of being revoked or repealed.
4743 legal regulation Any order or rule issued by a government stipulating its procedures for the creation, execution or adjudication of laws.
4744 legal remedy The means by which a right is enforced or the violation of a right is prevented, redressed, or compensated.
4746 legal text The exact wording or language of a law or other document in conformity with the law or having the authority of law.
4749 legislation The act or process of making laws.
475 anticipation of danger The act of foreseeing, expecting and taking measures against possible future exposure to harm, death or a thing that causes these.
4752 legislation on pollution Rules concerning the limits of pollutant emissions.
4758 water resources legislation A binding rule or body of rules prescribed by a government to manage and protect an area's natural water supply and waterways.
4759 legislative authority The power of a deliberative assembly of persons or delegates to bring a bill, resolution or special act to an official, legally binding status.
4760 legislative competence The skill, knowledge, qualification, capacity or authority to make, give or enact rules with binding force upon a population or jurisdiction.
4762 legislative information Knowledge or a service providing knowledge concerning actual and proposed laws, including approval status, the history and content of deliberative proceedings and the specific language of those laws.
4764 legislature The department, assembly, or body of persons that makes statutory laws for a state or nation.
4767 leisure activity Sports and recreational activities carried out in the time free from work or other duties.
4771 leisure time Time free from work or other duties; spare time.
4777 lepidopteran A large order of scaly-winged insects, including the butterflies, skippers, and moths; adults are characterized by two pairs of membranous wings and sucking mouthparts, featuring a prominent, coiled proboscis.
478 antifouling agent Agent that inhibits the growth of barnacles and other marine organisms on a ship's bottom (an antifouling paint or other coating). Organo-tin compounds have been the most often used agents in this application since they are effective against both soft and hard fouling organisms. However, in spite of their performance, they have a negative impact on the marine environment and their long half life in the environment, has prompted marine paint manufacturers to look for a nonpersistent alternative.
4782 leukaemia A progressive, malignant disease of the blood forming organs; a distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow.
4784 levy A ratable portion of the produce of the property and labor of the individual citizens, taken by the nation, in the exercise of its sovereign rights, for the support of government, for the administration of the laws, and as the means for continuing in operation the various legitimate functions of the state.
4785 lexicon The vocabulary of a particular sphere of activity, region, social class or individual, or the total set of morphemes or meaningful units of a language and its words.
4787 liability Subjection to a legal obligation. Liability is civil or criminal according to whether it is enforced by the civil or criminal courts.
4788 liability for marine accidents Subjection to a legal obligation, such as financial recompense or ecological reparations, for any harm or damage inflicted on persons, property or the environment in the course of commercial or recreational activity in, on or near a sea.
4789 liability for nuclear damages Subjection to a legal obligation, such as financial recompense or ecological reparations, for any harm or damage inflicted on persons, property or the environment during the production, use or transport of radioactive materials used as an energy source or in weaponry.
4790 liability legislation A law or body of laws enacted that pertains to or establishes an obligation, debt or responsibility for loss, penalty, evil, expense or burden.
4793 library Place where books and other literary materials are kept.
4796 licencing Any process of granting and certifying legal or administrative permission to a person or organization to pursue some occupation or to perform some activity or business.
4797 licencing procedure Procedures performed by administrative agencies in conjunction with issuance of various types of licences.
4798 licencing obligation Obligation to obtain a permit to pursue an occupation or to carry on some business.
4799 lichen Composite organisms formed by the symbiosis between species of fungi and an algae. They are either crusty patches or bushy growths on tree trunks, stone walls, roofs or garden paths. Because they have no actual roots they get their sustenance from the atmosphere and rainwater. Lichens play an important role in the detection and monitoring of pollution, especially sulphur dioxide, as they are highly sensitive to pollution and different species disappear if pollution reaches specific levels.
48 acidity degree The amount of acid present in a solution, often expressed in terms of pH.
4802 life cycle The phases, changes, or stages through which an organism passes throughout its lifetime.
4805 life science A science based on living organisms collectively.
4808 lifestyle The particular attitudes, habits or behaviour associated with an individual or group.
4810 light Electromagnetic radiation that is capable of causing a visual sensation.
4814 lighting The supply of illumination in streets or dwellings.
4815 separator of light liquids A mechanical device for separating and removing residues from fuel and lubricating oil from waste water coming from filling stations and industrial plants in order to avoid pollution of water bodies; this system is based on the different specific weights of water and fuel residues that float on the water and can be easily removed.
4818 lignite Coal of relatively recent origin consisting of accumulated layers of partially decomposed vegetation, intermediate between peat and bituminous coal; often contains patterns from the wood from which it formed.
4819 lignite mining Extraction of brown coal from natural deposits; lignite is a brownish-black solid fuel in the second stage in the development of coal. It has a little over half the heating value of bituminous or anthracite coal.
4820 lime Any of various mineral and industrial forms of calcium oxide differing chiefly in water content and percentage of constituent such as silica, alumina and iron.
4823 limestone A sedimentary rock consisting chiefly of calcium carbonate, primarily in the form of the mineral calcite and with or without magnesium carbonate. Limestones are formed by either organic or inorganic processes, and may be detrital, chemical, oolitic, earthy, crystalline, or recrystallized; many are highly fossiliferous and clearly represent ancient shell banks or coral reefs.
4828 limit value A workplace exposure criterion or standard that determines if a facility or building has a concentration of a substance to which most workers can be exposed without harmful or adverse effects.
483 antipollution incentive Financial reward or penalty used to incite action towards greater responsibility in reducing the presence of pollution or substances in the environment deemed harmful to human health or natural resources.
4830 limnology The study of bodies of fresh water with reference to their plant and animal life, physical properties, geographical features, etc.
4832 linear source of sound Point noise sources placed one after the other one as, for instance, in a row of cars moving on a road.
4834 liner material A layer of synthetic or natural materials, on the sides of or beneath a landfill, landfill cell or surface impoundment, that restricts the downward or lateral escape of liquids carrying leachate into the surrounding environment.
4835 line source Line source means a one-dimensional source. An example of a line source is the particular emissions from a dirt road.
4838 lipid One of a class of compounds which contain long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives, such as fatty acids, alcohols, amines, amino alcohols, and aldehydes; includes waxes, fats, and derived compounds.
4839 lipophilic substance Substances having an affinity for lipids. unpolar substances, having affinity to fatty (unpolar) substances <D>
4840 liquefied gas A gaseous compound or mixture converted to the liquid phase by cooling or compression; examples are liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquid oxygen, and liquid ammonia.
4843 liquid manure Any fertilizer substance with a moisture content of over ninety percent, usually consisting of animal excrement with water added.
4844 liquid state A state of matter intermediate between that of crystalline substances and gases in which a substance has the capacity to flow under extremely small shear stresses and conforms to the shape of a confining vessel, but is relatively incompressible, lacks the capacity to expand without limit, and can posses a free surface.
4845 liquid waste Fluid wastes, consisting of sewage and domestic wastewater, or processed water, or other liquids, produced by industrial activity, particularly by such industries as pulp and paper production, food processing, and the manufacture of chemicals.
4850 literature Written material such as poetry, novels, essays, especially works of imagination characterized by excellence of style and expression and by themes of general or enduring interest.
4851 literature data bank A fund of information on a particular subject or group of related subjects, divided into discrete documents and usually stored in and used with a computer system.
4852 literature evaluation The action of evaluating or judging the quality or character of written materials such as poetry, essays, novels, biographies and historical writings.
4853 literature study The identification, description, analysis and classification of books and other materials used or consulted in the preparation of a work.
4855 lithosphere The solid portion of the Earth, as compared with the atmosphere and the hydrosphere.
4857 litter Straw, hay or similar material used as bedding by animals.
4858 littoral The intertidal zone of the seashore.
486 AOX value Organic halogens subject to absorption. This is a measure of the amount of chlorine (and other halogens) combined with organic compounds. adsorbable organic halogens value
4862 livestock Cattle, horses, and similar animals kept for domestic use especially on a farm.
4863 livestock breeding The raising of livestock by crossing different varieties to obtain new varieties with desired characteristics.
4864 livestock farming Breeding of cattle, horses and similar animals.
4866 living condition An element or characteristic of a habitation considered in light of its ability to sustain and promote the health and general well-being of occupants.
4867 living marine resource
4868 living space Any room, structure or area used as a residence and associated with subsistence activities, including sleeping, relaxing or eating.
4871 lizard Any reptile of the suborder Lacertilia, especially those of the family Lacertidae, typically having an elongated body, four limbs, and a small tail: includes the gechos, iguanas, chameleons, monitors, and slow worms.
4873 load bearing capacity The maximum load that a system can support before failing.
4879 local authority The power of a government agency or its administrators to administer and implement laws and government policies for a city, town or small district.
488 apartment block An apartment building in which each apartment is individually wholly owned and the common areas are jointly owned.
4884 local finance The theory and practice of all public money matters pertaining to city, town or small district governments.
4885 local government policy Any course of action adopted and pursued by a ruling political authority or system, which determines the affairs for a city, town, county or regional area.
4886 teleheating The supply of heat, either in the form of steam or hot water, from a central source to a group of buildings.
4888 local building material
4889 local passenger service Passenger transport system for a limited local area.
4891 local traffic Traffic moving within a city, town, or area and subject to frequent stops, as distinguished from long distance traffic.
4893 location of industries The particular place that seems apt for the installation of a new plant; the choice of the site depends on a number of economic a