The major processes in soils are gains, losses, transfers, and transformations of organic matter, soluble salts, carbonates, silicate clay minerals, sesquioxides, and silica. Gains consist normally of additions of organic matter, and of oxygen and water through oxidation and hydration, but in some sites slow continuous additions of new mineral materials take place at the surface or soluble materials are deposited from groundwater. Losses are chiefly of materials dissolved or suspended in water percolating through the profile or running off the surface.
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