ETC/ATNI Report 18/2019: Development of a refined methodology for the EEA externalities assessment

The report reviews the methods used to calculate damage costs per tonne of pollutant emitted and per country with a view to updating the earlier assessments of the costs of air pollution from EU industrial facilities (EEA, 2011 & 2014). The review covers the whole impact pathway assessment (IPA) route, from emissions through exposure to the quantification of health and environmental impacts and their valuation, as well as the consideration of uncertainties. The report makes recommendations with respect to the scope of the analysis (pollutants, impacts, countries, years … to cover), atmospheric dispersion modelling for different pollutants, calculation of sectoral adjustment factors and monetisation.

09 Mar 2021

Prepared by: 

Simone Schucht (Ineris), Elsa Real (Ineris), Mike Holland (EMRC), Lucy Garland (Aether), Mark Gibbs (Aether), Augustin Colette (Ineris)

The EEA has published two reports assessing the costs of air pollution from EU industrial facilities (EEA, 2011 & 2014). The assessments involved two stages: a calculation of damage costs per tonne of pollutant emitted and per country, and an assessment of externalities of industrial facilities by multiplying their emissions with the damage costs per tonne of pollutant. In advance of a further update of this assessment in 2020 this report reviews the methods used in the 2014 report to calculate damage costs per tonne of pollutant emitted.

Pollutant screening of E-PRTR suggests that the assessment should be extended to include additionally the two greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide. For atmospheric transport (dispersion) and transformation of the main air pollutants, the most up to date EMEP source receptor matrices for PM2.5 and ozone should be used. The Sherpa model with a higher resolution may be used to develop source receptor relationships for the assessment of NO2 health impacts. Health impacts from NO2 have not previously been considered in the assessment. Additional health impacts can be included for heavy metals and organic pollutants (e.g. mortality). Monetary estimates to value mortality should be updated. Furthermore, impacts on biodiversity from deposition of NH3 and NO2 for exceedances of critical loads for eutrophication in Natura 2000 areas can be included in the analysis.